Our bodies need a steady stream of minerals, many in trace amounts, to function properly. Our Plant Derived Minerals products are liquid concentrates containing up to 77 minerals from prehistoric plants in their unaltered colloidal form.

The minerals listed below have been identified by Dr. Wallach as essential and comprise 60 of the 90 essential nutrients.  They are essential for two basic reasons:
(1) The body cannot produce them. They must be consumed.
(2) A deficiency in any one of these nutrients will impact our health and can be directly linked to disease(s).

Al—Aluminum is found in igneous rocks at 5,000 ppm, 82,000 ppm in shales, 25,000 ppm in sandstone, 4,200 ppm in limestone, and 71,000 ppm in clay. Aluminum represents 12 percent of the earth’s crust and is the most common metal in the earth’s crust. Aluminum is found in high concentrations in all plants grown in the soil, including common food crops such as squash, tea, wine, and wheat. Aluminum is found in large biological quantities in every plant grown in the soil. You can’t eat any grain, vegetable, fruit, or nut or drink any natural water source or juice without taking in large quantities of aluminum.
The aluminum found in plants is organically bound colloidal aluminum and appears not to have any negative affect and in fact appears to be an essential element in human nutrition. Acid soils yield highest amounts of soil aluminum to plants. It is found in marine plants at 60 ppm and is especially high in plankton and red algae. Aluminum is found in land plants at an average of 500 ppm, with a range of 0.5 to 4,000 ppm. It is found in marine mammals at 19 to 50 ppm. In mammals, the highest levels are found in the hair and lungs.
Aluminum’s known biological function is to activate the enzyme succinic dehydrogenase. It increases the survival rate of newborns, and, according to Professor Gerhard Schrauzer, former professor of chemistry at UCSD, is “probably an essential mineral for human nutrition.” A single faulty study over 25 years ago suggested a link between chronic aluminum exposure and Alzheimer’s disease.
In a study that appeared November 5, 1992 in the journal Nature, Frank Watt, et al (Oxford University) used a highly accurate technique to quantify the levels of aluminum in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. To their surprise, they found the same levels of aluminum in the brains of the non-Alzheimer’s controls as they did in their Alzheimer’s patients. The June 1997 issue of the Berkley Newsletter reported that there is no link between Alzheimer’s disease and aluminum.
Am—Americum are radioactive isotopes and have a half-life of 7,950 years. Americum accumulates in mammalian bone.
Ar—Argon is found in igneous rocks at 3.0 to 5.0 ppm and can be used to date ancient rocks using the potassium/argon dating system. It is found in fresh water and sea water at 0.06 ppm and mammalian blood at 0.75 ppm.
As—Arsenic is found in igneous rock at .0 to 8.0 ppm, shale at 13.0 ppm, sandstone and limestone at 1.0 ppm, fresh water at 0.0004 ppm, seawater at 0.003 ppm, and soils at 6.0 ppm. Argentina and New Zealand actually have toxic levels of arsenic in some soil regions. Arsenic also accumulates in marine plants at the rate of 30.0 ppm, land plants at 0.02 ppm, marine animals at 0.005 to 0.3 ppm, and land animals at a rate of less than 0.2 ppm concentrating in hair and nails. It is essential for survivability of newborn and neonatal growth.
Arsenic in combination with choline prevents 100 percent of perosis (“slipped tendon”) in poultry. Arsenic deficiency in humans results in a “carpal tunnel syndrome,” “TMJ,” and other “repetitive motion” type degeneration. Arsenic metabolism is affected by tissue and blood levels of zinc, selenium, arginine, choline, methionine, taurine, and quaniacetic acid, all of which affect methyl-group metabolism and polyamine synthesis which is the site of arsenic function in human physiology.
The French Academy first identified arsenic in dead human bodies in 1834. Arsenic normally appears in human female blood at 0.64 ppm. Levels rise to 0.93 ppm during menstruation and 2.20 ppm during months five and six of pregnancy. At 90 to 120 ppm, arsenic promotes the growth rate of chicks. The rate of growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles is enhanced by the presence of arsenic as well.
At—Atatine is a radioactive isotope with an extremely short half-life of 7.2 to 8 hours. Astatine is accumulated by the mammalian and human thyroid following ingestion but is rapidly excreted.
Au—Gold is found in igneous and sedimentary rocks at 0.004 ppm, fresh water at 0.00006 ppm, sea water at 0.000011 ppm, marine plants at 0.012 ppm, land plants 0.0005 to 0.002 ppm, marine animals at 0.0003 to 0.008 ppm, land animals at 0.00023 ppm, and in mammalian liver forms, as a colloid. Gold concentrates in the horse tail plant. Gold compounds (gold sodium thiomalate, gold thioglucose also known as aurothio-glucose) are frequently administered by orthodox physicians as an add on therapy with salicylates (aspirin) for arthritis when added pain relief is required. Gold has been reported only to be effective against active joint inflammation and is not usually helpful for treating advanced destructive rheumatoid arthritis.
B—Boron is found in igneous rocks at 10 ppm, shale at 100 ppm, sandstone at 35 ppm, limestone at 20 ppm, fresh water at 0.013 ppm, sea water at 4.0 to 6.0 ppm, soil from 2.0 to 100 ppm (highest in saline and alkaline soils), marine plants 120 ppm (highest in brown algae), land plants at 150 ppm ( chenopodiaceae and plumboginaceae are indicator plant families), marine animals at 20 to 50 ppm, and land animals at 0.5 ppm. Boron is essential for bone metabolism including efficient use of calcium and magnesium and proper function of endocrine glands (i.e.— ovaries, testes, and adrenals).
Pure boron is hard and gray and melts at over 4,000 degrees F. Boron, a non-metallic mineral, occurs as a combination in nature (i.e.- borax, boric acid or sassolite, ulexite, colemanite, boracite, and tourmaline).
Prior to 1981, boron was not considered an essential nutrient. Boron was first shown to be an essential mineral for growing chicks. It was not until 1990 that boron was accepted as an essential nutrient for humans.
Boron is required for the maintenance of bone density and normal blood levels of estrogen and testosterone. Within eight days of supple­menting boron, women lost 40 percent less calcium, 33 percent less magnesium, and less phosphorus through their urine. Women receiving boron supplementation had blood levels of estradiol 17B doubled to “levels found in women on estrogen replacement therapy.” Levels of testosterone also double with Boron supplementation.
Ba—Barium is found in igneous rocks at 425 ppm, shale at 580 ppm, sandstone at 50 ppm, limestone at 120 ppm, fresh water at 0.054 ppm, sea water at 0.03 ppm, soil at 500 ppm, marine plants at 30 ppm  (highest in brown algae), land plants at 14 ppm (the fruit of Bertholletia excelea can have up to 4,000 ppm), marine animals 0.2 to 3.0 ppm (highest in hard tissue such as bone and shell), and land animals at up to 75 ppm (highest in bone, lung, and eyes). Barium was considered essential to mammals in 1949.
Be—Beryllium is found in igneous rocks at 2 to 8 ppm, shale at 3 ppm, sandstone and limestone at < 0.1 ppm, fresh water at 0.001 ppm, sea water at 0.0000006 ppm, soil at 0.001 ppm, marine plants (highest in brown algae), land plants at less than 0.1 ppm (highest in plants grown on volcanic soils), and land animals at 0.0003 to 0.002 ppm in soft tissue.
Bi—Bismuth is found in igneous rocks at 0.17 ppm, shale at 1.0 ppm, seawater at 0.000017 ppm, land plants at 0.06 ppm, marine animals at 0.09 ppm, and land animals at 0.004 ppm. Stress has historically been blamed as the boogy-man as the cause of gastric, peptic, and duodenal ulcers. Human studies have in fact demonstrated that the true cause of ulcers is an infection with a bacterium known as Helicobacter pylori. Australian gastroenterologist Barry Marshall, M.D. and pathologist J. Robbin Warren proposed their theory for the bacterial cause of gastric ulcers in 1983. The bacterial cause for gastric ulcers was known in pigs in 1952. The treatment of choice for ulcers is ten days to four weeks on tetracycline antibiotics, antacids, and bismuth subsalicylate. You’ve heard of bismuth treating stomach symptoms if you’ve heard of a pink liquid with the name of Pepto Bismol™.
Br—Bromine is a “halogen” related to iodine. It is found in igneous rocks at 3.0 to 5.0 ppm, shale at 4.0 ppm, sandstone at 1.0 ppm, limestone at 0.2 ppm, fresh water at 0.2 ppm, sea water at 65 ppm, soil 5.0 ppm, marine plants at 740 ppm (highest in brown algae), land plants at 15 ppm, marine animals at 60 to 1000 ppm, and land animals at 6.0 ppm. Bromine functions in the form of brominated amino acids. There is strong evidence for Bromine’s essentiality in mammals.
C—Carbon is found in igneous rocks at 200 ppm, shale at 15,300 ppm, sandstone at 13,800 ppm, limestone at 113,500 ppm, fresh water at 11 ppm, sea water at 28 ppm, soils at 20,000 ppm (up to 90 percent of carbon in soil is bound in the humus), marine plants at 345,000 ppm, land plants at 454,000 ppm, marine animals at 400,000 ppm, and in land animals at 465,000 ppm (280,000 ppm in bone). Carbon functions as an essential structural element for all organic molecules (i.e.- carbohy­drates, fats, amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, etc.).
Carbohydrates normally furnish most of the energy required to move, perform work, and for the basic biochemical functions of life itself.
The chief sources of carbohydrates include grains, vegetables, fruits and sugars. Carbohydrates in their simplest form have the formula CH20. Hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio that is found in water with one carbon for each molecule of water.
Plants are able to manufacture carbohydrates (sugar and starch), vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids. To manufacture carbohydrate, plants take C02 and H20 and subject them to a chemical process called photosynthesis. In the presence of chlorophyll, a magnesium/carbon ring structure, carbohydrate is produced using the energy from sunlight. 02 is released as a by-product of the reaction. Carbohydrates are classified as monosaccharides (glucose or “grape sugar,” fructose), disaccharide’s (sucrose = glucose and fructose, maltose = glucose and glucose, lactose = glucose and galactose), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides (starch, dextrin, fiber, cellulose, and glycogen or “animal starch” are all complexes of glucose units).
Lipids or fats, like carbohydrates, are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fats have the common property of being insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents such as ether and chloroform, and can be utilized as energy by living organisms. Fats as a group of carbon compounds includes ordinary fats, oils, waxes, and unrelated compounds. The primary food sources of lipids are butter, flax seed oil, olive oil, animal fat, nuts, seeds, whole grains, olives, avocados, egg yolks, dairy, etc. Fats serve as a source of immediate or stored energy. A gram of fat contains 9 calories per gram compared with 4.5 calories per gram.
Triglycerides (the primary component of fats and oils) are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Structurally, they are esters of a trihydric alcohol (glycerol) and fatty acids. The fatty acids can have from four to 30 carbon atoms and constitute the bulk of the triglyceride mass. One hundred grams of fat or oil will contain 95 grams of fatty acids.
A fatty acid or hydrocarbon chain is described with regard to three characteristics: chain length, degree of “saturation” with hydrogen, and location of the first “double bond.” The length is a reference to the number of carbon atoms in the chain (i.e.- C (16) has 16 carbons in the chain). The term “short” (less than 6 carbons), “medium” (7 to 11 carbons), and “long” (12 or more carbons) are used to describe the chains of fatty acids in the structure of triglycerides.
The degree of hydrogen “saturation” in fatty acids is defined by the number of double bonds between carbon atoms in the fatty acid chains. A chain can contain all the hydrogen it can hold and have no double bonds, in which case it is referred to as a saturated fatty acid. It can
contain one double bond (monounsaturated fatty acid) or it may contain several double bonds (polyunsaturated fatty acids).
The location of the first double bond as counted from the “tail” or methyl end of the fatty acid is referred to as the “omega” number (i.e.-omega 3, omega 6, etc.).
Three polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids) are known as essential fatty acids (EFA). Three percent of the total daily calorie intake is required from EFA. However, only two (linoleic and linolenic) are designated as Essential Fatty Acids. Arachidonic acid can be synthesized by humans from lenolenic acid. EFA’s have essential vitamin-like functions in fat transport and metabolism, and in main­taining the integrity of cell walls (bilipid layer membranes). They are also part of the fatty acids of cholesterol esters and phospholipids in plasma lipoproteins and mitochondrial lipoproteins. Serum cholesterol can be lowered by the consumption of EFA. EFA’s are also the raw material for the human body to manufacture prostaglandins that help regulate blood pressure, heart rate, vascular dilation, blood clotting, bronchial dilation, and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) function. EFA deficiency in human infants results in a poor growth rate, eczema, and lowered resistance to infectious diseases.
Cholesterol is a member of a large group of fats known as sterols. They all have a complex carbon ring structure. Cholesterol is only found in animal tissue, but similar sterols are found in plants. Cholesterol is an essential part of the structure of cell walls, brain and spinal cord (myelin), the raw material for the production of vitamin D in the human body, bile acids, adrenal cortical hormones, estrogen (a cholesterol deficiency makes menopause a living hell), progesterone, and testosterone (a cholesterol deficiency will turn hubby into a TV watching steer who is totally disinterested in sex).
Proteins are the fundamental structural components of the living cell (cytoplasm). They are essential parts of the cell nucleus and protoplasm. Proteins are the most abundant of all carbon containing organic compounds in the human body. The greatest mass of body protein is found in the skeletal muscle, the remainder is found in other organs (liver, kidney, heart, stomach, etc.), bones, teeth, blood, and other body fluids (lymph). Enzymes are proteins that work to facilitate chemical reactions in the body.
Proteins, like carbohydrates and fats, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In addition, they also contain 16 percent nitrogen (the amine group) sometimes in conjunction with other elements such as phosphorus, iron, sulfur and cobalt. The basic structural unit of a protein is the amino acid. Amino acids are united by “peptide bonds” into long chains of various geometric structures to form specific proteins. Digestion of proteins breaks the peptide bonds to release individual amino acids. Use of protein for energy provides 4.5 calories per gram.
Classically there are nine essential amino acids that are required in the daily diet as they cannot be manufactured by the human body. Forty-three percent of the dietary protein for human infants must be the essential amino acids. Growing children require 36 percent essential amino acids and adults require 19 percent for maintenance. To the classic list of essential amino acids, I would add arginine, taurine, and tyrosine. Over the long haul, these three amino acids help prevent certain specific diseases. Respectively, those diseases are cancer, macular degeneration, and goiter.
The classic essential amino acids are:
Amino Acid – Function:
Valine – protein production
Lysine – protein production
Threonine – protein production
Leucine – protein production
Isoleucine – protein production
Tryptophane – precursor of niacin and serotonin
Phenylalanine – precursor of thyroxin and epinephrine
Methionine – formation of choline and creatine phosphate
Histidine – formation of histamine
An individual consuming protein at even 300 gm per day (almost 3/4 of a pound of meat a day) will have no adverse effects as long as they do not have kidney or liver disease.
Vitamins are a major carbon group of unrelated organic carbon compounds needed by the human body in minute quantities each day. They are essential for specific metabolic reactions of the cell and are required for normal growth, development, maintenance, health, longevity, and life itself. Vitamins work as coenzymes or activating side groups for essential subcellular enzyme systems. Vitamins regulate metabolism, facilitate the conversion of fat and carbohydrate to energy, and are required for the formation and repair of tissues in embryos, children, teens, adults, and seniors.
Taking optimum levels of essential vitamins goes a long way to preventing birth defects and solving the problems of reduced physical effectiveness and debilitating degenerative diseases.
Ca—Calcium is found in igneous rocks at 41,500 ppm, shale at 22,100 ppm, sandstone at 39,100 ppm, limestone at 302,000 ppm, fresh water at 15 ppm, sea water at 400 ppm, soils at 7,000 to 500,000 ppm (lowest in acid soils and highest in limestone or alkaline soils), marine plants at 10,000 to 300,000 ppm (highest in calcarious tissue—red, blue-green, and green algae and diatoms), land plants 18,000 ppm, marine animals 1,500 to 20,000 ppm, 350,000 ppm in calcarious tissue (sponges, coral, molluscs, echinoderms), land animals at 200 to 85,000 ppm, 260,000 ppm in mammalian bone, 200 to 500 ppm in soft tissue, and at levels lower than 5ppm in red blood cells. Calcium is essential for all organisms and is found in the cell walls of plants, all calcareous tissues, and mammalian bones. Calcium also helps regulate electrochemical functions in cells and activates several enzymes.
Calcium is the fifth most abundant mineral element in the earth’s crust and biosphere. There is evidence that clearly shows humans are designed to consume and use high calcium diets. The late Paleolithic period of 35,000 to 10,000 years ago was the most recent time that our human forebears lived in the environment for which they had been biochemically designed. The agricultural revolution occurred 10,000 years ago and it reduced the wide variety of wild foods in the human food chain while increased food energy (calories). These dietary changes universally and forever decreased man’s dietary intake of minerals, trace minerals, and rare earths. The uncultivated food plants and wild game commonly available to Stone Age humans would supply 1600 mg at basal energy intakes and between 2,000 and 3,000 mg of calcium at the energy levels required to support hunting and work.
During the 20th century, American adults have a calcium intake of only one-fifth to one-third as much as did Stone Age humans. The National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey II reported a median calcium intake for American women of between 300 and 508 mg per day and only 680 mg for men.
Common Calcium Deficiency Diseases:
Osteoporosis Kyphosis Dowager’s hump Lordosis
Legg-Perthe’s disease
Compression fractures
Spontaneous fractures
Receding gums
Degenerative arthritis
Ankylosing spondylitis
Kidney stones
Bone spurs (heel spurs)
Calcium deposits
Cramps and twitches
Low back pain
Bell’s Palsy
Wallach’s vertigo Trigeminal neuralgia Spinal stenosis
Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
Panic attacks
Elevated blood calcium
Prolonged clotting time
Other nutrients that are commonly found in the American diet aggravate the national calcium deficiency. Diets rich in salt and phosphates (protein and soft drinks) result in an increased calcium “cost.” In effect these foods increase the requirements for calcium. Urinary calcium loss increased from 96 mg per day to 148 mg per day when food was heavily salted. As phosphate intake is doubled the output of urinary calcium increases 50 per cent.
There are no less than 147 deficiency diseases that can be attributed to calcium deficiencies or imbalances. The most recent clinical research clearly points out that the entire scope of American diets are critically deficient in calcium. The only practical way to get enough calcium is through supplementation. Interestingly, the allopathic physicians who did the study failed in their duty. Instead of simply recommending effective calcium supplementation, they recommended eating five cups of broccoli a day as a valuable source of calcium. Try and get a kid to eat that!
The more common calcium deficiency diseases are easy to recognize and run from poor clotting time of the blood when you nick yourself shaving (calcium is a cofactor in the clotting mechanism), arthritis (which physicians traditionally treat with pain killers), to the dozens of variations of osteoporosis.
Famous people who have suffered from calcium deficiency include Pope John Paul II (fractured hip/osteoporosis), Elizabeth Taylor (osteo­porosis/hip replacement surgery), “Bo” Jackson (fractured hip/osteo­porosis), Bill Walton, a vegan of professional basketball fame (knee, foot, and bone spurs), Ted Williams of baseball fame (osteoporosis and arthritis), etc.
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. The average male has 1,200 grams and the average female has 1,000 grams. Calcium makes up two percent of the adult body weight (water makes up 65 to 75 percent). Calcium also composes up to 39 percent of the total mineral reserves of the body (ash). Ninety-nine percent of body calcium is found in the bones and teeth. The other one percent is found in the blood, extracellular fluids, and within cells where it is a cofactor and activator for numerous enzymes.
Calcium in bones is in the form of hydroxyapatite salts composed of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate in a classic crystal structure bound to a protein framework called “bone matrix.” Put a chicken “drumstick” bone in a quart of vinegar for two weeks and the calcium will be leached out of the bone leaving the protein matrix. Similar types of hydroxyapatite are found in the enamel and dentine of teeth; however, little is available from teeth to contribute to rapidly available Ca to maintain blood levels.
In addition to being a major structural mineral, Ca is also required for the release of energy from ATP for muscular contraction, and blood clotting. In the blood clotting process ionized Ca stimulates the release of thromboplastin from the platelets and converts prothrombin to thrombin. Thrombin helps to convert fibrinogen to fibrin, and fibrin is the protein web that traps red blood cells to make blood clots. Calcium mediates the transport function of cell and organelle membranes. Ca effects the release of neurotransmitters at synaptic junctions. It also mediates the synthesis, secretion, and metabolic effects of hormones and enzymes. Ca helps to regulate the heartbeat, muscle tone, and muscle receptivity to nerve stimulation.
Calcium is mainly absorbed in the duodenum, where the environ­ment is still acid. Once the food in the intestine becomes alkaline, absorption drops. Calcium is absorbed from the small intestine by active cellular transport and by simple diffusion. Metallic calcium absorption may be limited to 10 percent or less and is affected by many substances in the gut. Calcium is highly absorbable, up to 98 percent in the organically bound plant derived colloidal mineral and water-soluble chelated form.
Causes of calcium deficiency include a lack of vitamin D. So does a deficiency of stomach acid. Often the lack of stomach acid or hypochlorhydria results from a restricted NaCl (salt) intake. Lactose intolerance, celiac disease, high fat diet, and low protein intake and high phytate consumption can lead to calcium deficiency. Phytic acid is a phosphorus containing acid compound found in the bran of grains and seeds as well as the stems of many plants. Oatmeal and whole wheat especially contain phytic acid. When phytic acid combines with calcium it forms an insoluble product called calcium phytate which cannot be absorbed by the body. Oxalic acid in rhubarb, spinach, chard, and mustard greens combines with Ca to form an insoluble calcium oxalate, which is not absorbed. Fiber itself, besides the phytate content, prevents calcium absorption. Alkaline intestine, gut hypermobility (too rapid transit time brought on by too much fiber fruit, etc.), and pharmaceuticals (antiseizure drugs, diuretics, etc.) result in decreased absorption and retention. Excesses of sugar and caffeine from coffee, tea, colas, etc. will leach calcium from the bones.
Parathormone secreted by the parathyroid gland and calcitonin secreted by the thyroid gland maintain a serum calcium of 8.5 to 10.5 mg percent by drawing on calcium reserves from the bones. The parathor­mone can also affect the kidney so that it retains more calcium. The same hormone can cause the gut to be more efficient in absorption. When the blood calcium begins to rise from too much parathyroid activity, calcitonin reduces availability of calcium from the bones.
In 1980, McCarron et al theorized that chronic calcium deficiency probably led to hypertension. More than 30 subsequent studies supported the original theory of calcium deficiency as the cause of hypertension. In addition, recent studies have shown that serum ionized calcium is consistently lower in humans with untreated hypertension. In a recent review article, Sower and others noted that the association of calcium intake and high blood pressure is most clear in people with daily calcium intakes of less than 500 mg a day.
The phenomenon of salt sensitive hypertension consists of a rise in blood pressure and sustained increase in urinary loss of calcium in response to salt consumption. Among black and elderly whites with essential hypertension, restricted intakes of calcium and potassium, rather than elevated salt consumption is responsible for salt sensitivity. In a four-year study of 58,218 nurses, hypertension was more likely to develop in females who took in less than 800 mg of Ca per day.
Up to 75 percent of consumed calcium is lost in the feces. Two percent is lost in the urine and sweat (15 mg per day is lost in normal sweating—this can double or triple in active athletes or individuals engaged in physical labor). In cases of excess urine loss of calcium (osteoporosis, excess phosphorous, etc.), kidney stones, bone spurs, and calcium deposits will develop. Bone and heel spurs and calcium deposits always develop at the sites of insertions of tendons and ligaments during a raging osteoporosis. Bone spurs, heel spurs, and calcium deposits can be reversed and eliminated by supplementing with significant amounts of chelated and colloidal calcium sources.
Not only are our soils and food deficient in calcium, additionally the American diet is rich in phosphorous, which is found in just about everything we eat. Ideally, the calcium to phosphorous (or Ca:P) ratio in our daily diet should be 2:1. This ideal ratio is not possible by simply eating food. You would have to eat 25 pounds of broccoli every time you ate a 16 oz. steak! The only possible way to approach the 2:1 ideal is to avoid as much as possible the food items containing high amounts of phosphorous (I hate calling colas, processed “cheese,” etc., food) and supplement with plant derived colloidal and chelated calcium.
Cd—Cadmium is found in igneous rocks at 0.2 ppm, shale at 0.3 ppm, sandstone at 0.05 ppm, limestone at 0.035 ppm, fresh water at 0.08 ppm, sea water at 0.00011 ppm, soils at 0.06 ppm, marine plants at 0.4 ppm, land plants at 0.6 ppm, marine animals at 0.15 to 3.0 ppm, and in land animals at 0.5 ppm (accumulates in kidney tissue). Functions in nature by stimulating the hatching of nematode (round worm) cysts. Cadmium-bound proteins have been isolated from mollusks and the horse kidney.
Ce—Ceriuma rare earth, is found in igneous rocks at 60 ppm, shale at 59 ppm, sandstone at 92 ppm, limestone 12 ppm, sea water 0.0004 ppm, soil 50 ppm, land plants accumulates to 320 ppm, and land animals 0.003 ppm (accumulates in bone). Cerium nitrate is used as a topical disinfectant for severe burn victims.
CI—Chlorine is found in igneous rocks at 130 ppm, shale at 180 ppm, sandstone at 10 ppm, limestone at 150 ppm, fresh water 7 to 8 ppm, sea water at 19,000 ppm, soil at 100 ppm (higher in alkaline soils, near the sea and in deserts—a major exchangeable anion in many soils), marine plants at 4,700 ppm, land plants at 2,000 ppm, marine animals at 5,000 to 90,000 ppm (highest in soft coelenterates), and land animals at 2,800 ppm. In land animals, Cl’s highest concentration is found in mammalian hair and skin. Chlorine is essential for all living species’ electrochemical and catalytic functions, activates numerous enzymes, and is the basic raw material for our stomachs to make stomach acid (HC1) for protein digestion by pepsin, B12 absorption (intrinsic factor activation), and absorption of minerals. Sodium chloride (NaCl) or salt is the universal source of chloride ions for all living things.
Cm—Curium is found in igneous rocks at 0.0001 ppm. All isotopes are radioactive with a 2.5 x 108 years half-life. Cm exists in some molybdenites. This radioactive mineral will accumulate in mammalian bone.
Co—Cobalt is found in igneous rock at about 25 ppm, shales at 19 ppm, sandstone at 0.3 ppm, limestone at 0.1 ppm, fresh water at 0.0009 ppm, sea water at 0.00027 ppm, soils at 8 ppm (higher in soils derived from basalt or serpentine; vast areas of the earth are known to be absolutely devoid of cobalt), marine animals at 0.5 ppm, and in land animals at 0.03 ppm (greatest concentrations in bone and liver).
Cobalt is essential for all forms of life including blue green algae, some bacteria and fungi, some plants, insects, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals including man. Cobalt functions as a cofactor and activator for enzymes, fixes nitrogen during amino acid production, and a single cobalt atom is the central metal component of vitamin B12 which itself is a cofactor and activator (cobamide coenzymes) for several essential enzymes.
B12 cobalt is chelated in a large tetrapyrrole ring similar to the phorphyrin ring found in hemoglobin and chlorophyll. The original B12 molecule isolated in the laboratory contained a cyanide group, thus the name cyanocobabalamine. There are several different cobalamine compounds that have vitamin B12 activity, with cyanocobalamine and hydroxycobalamine being the most active.
Vitamin B12 is a red crystalline substance that is water soluble. The red color is due to the cobalt in the molecule. Vitamin B12 is slowly deactivated by exposure to acid, alkali, light, and oxidizing or reducing substances. About 30 percent of B12 activity is lost during cooking (electric, gas, or microwave).
In 1948, B12 was isolated from liver extracts and demonstrated anti-pernicious anemia activity. The essentiality of cobalt is unusual in that the requirement is for a cobalt complex known as cyanocobalamine or vitamin B12. A pure cobalt requirement is only found in some bacteria and algae and the need for B12 cobalt is thought by some to represent a symbiotic relationship between microbes which generate and manu­facture B12 from elemental cobalt and vertebrates that require B12.
Ruminants (i.e. cows, sheep, goats, deer, antelope, buffalo, giraffe, etc.) can use elemental cobalt because the microbes fermenting and digesting plant material in their first stomach (rumen) convert elemental cobalt into vitamin B12, which the animal then uses. Carnivores can get their B12 from the ruminant by consuming stomach contents, liver, bone, and muscle from their kills. Poultry, lagomorphs (rabbits and hares), and rodents actively eat feces during the night (coprophagy) and in the process obtain vitamin B12 manufactured by intestinal microorganisms.
Metallic cobalt itself is absorbed at the rate of 20 to 26.2 percent by mice and in humans if intrinsic factor is present in the stomach and the stomach ph is 2.0 or less. Intrinsic factor is a mucoprotein enzyme known as Casde’s intrinsic factor and is part of normal stomach secretions. If a person has hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid—usually a NaCl deficiency) the intrinsic factor will not work and B12 cobalt is not absorbed—this is why doctors frequentiy give B12 shots to older people on salt restricted diets. Sublingual (under the tongue) and oral spray B12 is available. Plant derived cobalt is very bioavailable; however, because of low salt diets and cobalt depleted soils, vegetarians frequently have B12 deficiencies.
The B12 intrinsic factor complex is primarily absorbed in the terminal small intestine or ileum. Calcium is required for the B12 to cross from the intestine into the bloodstream as well as an active participation by intestinal cells. Simple diffusion can account for only one to three percent of the vitamin’s absorption. There is an enterohepatic (intestine direct to the liver) circulation of Vitamin B12 that recycles B12 from bile and other intestinal secretions which explains why B12 deficiency in vegans may not appear for five to ten years after giving up meat.
The maximum storage level of B12 is 2 mg, which is slowly released to the bone marrow as needed. Excess intake of B12 above the body’s storage capacity is shed in the urine (expensive urine). Vitamin B12/ cobalt joins with folic acid, choline, and the amino acid methionine to transfer single carbon groups (methyl groups) in the synthesis of the raw material to make RNA and the synthesis of DNA from RNA. DNA and RNA are directly involved in gene function; remember the concept of preconception nutrition to prevent birth defects. Growth, myelin formation (converts cholesterol into the insulating material myelin found around nerves in the brain, spinal cord, and large nerve trunks), and red blood cell synthesis are dependent on B12. Cobalt is also required as a necessary cofactor for the production of thyroid hormone.
The discovery of the essentiality of cobalt came from observing a fatal disease (“bush sickness”) in cattle and sheep from Australia and New Zealand. It was observed that “bush sickness” could be successfully treated and prevented by cobalt supplements. Bush sickness was characterized by emaciation (unsupplemented vegans), dull stare, listiess and starved look, pale mucus membranes, anorexia, and pernicious anemia (microcytic/hypochromic).
In humans, a failure to absorb B12/cobalt results in a deficiency disease. This can result from a surgical removal of parts of the stomach (eliminates areas of intrinsic factor production), or surgical removal of the ileum portion of the small bowel, small intestinal diverticulae, parasites (tapeworm), celiac disease (allergies to wheat gluten and cow’s milk albumen), and other malabsorption diseases. Pernicious anemia and demyelination of the spinal cord and large nerve trunks are classic diseases that result from a B12/cobalt deficiency.
Less than 0.07 ppm Co in the soil results in cobalt deficiency in animals and people who eat crops grown from those soils. 0.11 ppm Co in the soil prevents and cures Co deficiency.
The human RDA for B12/cobalt is 3 to 4 meg per day, but 250 to 400 meg gives more safety. Pregnant and nursing mothers should especially take care to supplement with optimum amounts of B12. A baby being nursed by a deficient mother has their deficiency extended over a long period of time. This may result in serious permanent nerve damage.
Cobalt excess in man (20 to 30 mg/day) may create an accelerated erythropoiesis (RBC – red blood cell – production) by stimulating an increased production of the kidney hormone erythropoiten.
Cr—Chromium is found in igneous rocks at 100 ppm, shale at 90 ppm, sandstone at 35 ppm, limestone at 11 ppm, fresh water at 0.00018 ppm, sea water at 0.00005 ppm, soils at 5 to 3,000 ppm (higest in soils derived from basalt and serpentine), marine plants 1 ppm, land plants at 0.23 ppm, marine animals at 0.2 to 1.0 ppm, and in land animals at 0.075 ppm where it is found accumulated by RNA and insulin.
Chromium activates phosphoglucosonetase and other enzymes and is closely associated with GTF or glucose tolerance factor. GTF is a combination of chromium III, dinicotinic acid, and glutathione. The reported plasma levels of chromium in humans over the past 20 years has ranged from 0.075 to 13 ng/ml. Concentrations of chromium in human hair are ten times greater than in blood, making hair analysis a much more accurate view of chromium tissue stores and function in the human. There is 1.5 mg in the human body.
Very litde inorganic chromium is stored in the body. Once inorganic chromium is absorbed, it is almost entirely excreted in the urine (therefore urine chromium levels can be used to estimate dietary chromium status). Dietary sugar loads (i.e. colas, apple juice, grape juice, honey, candy, sugar, fructose, etc.) increase the natural rate of urinary Cr loss by 300 percent for 12 hours. The average intake of 50 to 100 |ig of inorganic chromium from food and water supplies only 0.25 to 0.5 [ig of usable chromium. By contrast 25 percent of chelated chromium is absorbed. The chromium RDA for humans is a range of 50 to 200 |ig per day for adults.
The concentration of chromium is higher in newborn animals and humans than it is at older ages. In fact, the chromium levels of supplemented human tissue steadily decreases throughout life. Of greater concern has been the steady decline in the average American serum chromium since 1948:
Mean Chromium Blood Levels 28—1000
1948 1971 1972 1973 1974 1978 1980 1985
13 10
4.7 to 5.1 0.73 to 1.6
0.16 0.43 0.13
The fasting chromium plasma level of pregnant women is lower than that of nonpregnant women. Increasing impairment of glucose tolerance in “normal” pregnancy is well documented and reflects a chromium deficiency that oftentimes results in pregnancy onset diabetes. One study demonstrated abnormal glucose tolerance in 77 percent of clinically “normal” adults over the age of 70. According to Richard Anderson, USDA, “Ninety percent of all Americans are deficient in chromium.”
Gary Evans, Bemidji State University, Minnesota, very clearly showed an increased life span in laboratory animals by 33.3 percent when they were supplemented with chromium. Prior to this study gerontologists, led by Roy Walford, felt a severe restriction of calories was the only way to extend life past the expected average. Deficiencies of chromium in humans are characterized by a wide variety of clinical diseases as well as a shortened life expectancy. The clinical diseases of chromium deficiency are aggravated by concurrent vanadium deficiencies.
Diseases and Symptoms of Chromium Deficiency:
Low blood sugar Prediabetes
Diabetes (adult onset, Type II)
Learning disabilities
Manic depression
Bi-polar disease
Anxiety attacks
Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde rages -”Bad seeds”
Impaired growth
Peripheral neuropathy
Negative nitrogen balance—protein loss
Elevated blood triglycerides
Elevated blood cholesterol
Coronary blood vessel disease
Aortic cholesterol plaque
Decreased sperm count Shortened life span
Cs—Cesium is found in igneous rocks at 1 ppm, shale at 5 ppm, sandstone at limestone at 0.5 ppm, fresh water at 0.0002 ppm, sea water at 0.00005 ppm, soils at 0.3 to 25 ppm, marine plants at 0.07 ppm, land plants at 0.2 ppm, and in land animals at 0.064 ppm. In land animals the highest concentrations were found in muscle.
As an alkaline mineral, cesium behaves similarly to sodium, potassium, and rubidium chemically. Cesium and potassium enter into a solute complex, which participates in ion antagonism, osmosis, permeability regulation, and maintenance of the colloidal state in the living cell. The increase in supplemental potassium increases the rate of excretion or loss of cesium. Cesium chloride is used as part of alternative cancer therapy programs. Cesium provides “high ph therapy” for cancer by entering the cancer cell and producing an alkaline environment. It has been recommended for all types of cancers including sarcomas, bronchiogenic carcinoma, and colon cancer.
Cu—Copper is found in igneous rocks at 55 ppm, shale at 45 ppm, sandstone at 5 ppm, limestone at 4ppm, fresh water at 0.01 ppm, sea water at 0.003 ppm, soils at 2 to 100 ppm (copper is strongly absorbed by humus, but there are known areas of the world with extreme copper deficiency), marine plants 11 ppm, land 14 ppm, marine animals at 4 to 50 ppm (accumulates in the blood of annelid worms, crustaceans and mollusks, especially cephlopods), and in land animals at 2 to 4 ppm with highest levels in the liver. Copper is essential to all living organisms and is a universally important cofactor for many hundreds of metalloenzymes. Copper deficiency is widespread and copper deficiency diseases are quite common.
Copper Deficiency Symptoms and Diseases:
< White, grey, and silver hair
( Dry britde hair (“steely wool” in sheep)
( Ptosis (sagging tissue—eye lids, “crow’s feet,” skin, breasts,
stomach, etc.) ( Hernias (congenital and acquired) ( Varicose veins (including hemorrhoids) ( Spider veins
( Aneurysms (cerebral artery, coronary artery, and large artery blowouts)
( Kawasaki disease (congenital aneurysms with streptococcal infection)
( Anemia (especially common in high milk and vegan diets)
< Hypo and Hyperthyroid dysfunction
( Arthritis (especially where bone growth plates are involved) ( Ruptured vertebral discs
< Liver cirrhosis
( Violent behavior, blind rage, explosive outbursts, and
“criminal behavior” ( Learning disabilities
( Cerebral palsy and hypoplasia of the cerebellum (congenital
ataxia in sheep) ( High blood cholesterol ( Iron storage disease (hemosiderosis) ( Reduced carbohydrate tolerance ( Neutropenia (low neutrophil count)
Copper is required in many physiological functions: RNA, DNA, Lysil oxidase cofactor, melanin production (hair and skin pigment), electron transfer for subcellular respiration, tensile strength of elastic fibers in blood vessels, skin, vertebral discs, etc. Neonatal enzootic ataxia (sway back, lamkruis) was recognized as a clinical entity in 1937 as a copper deficiency in pregnant sheep. Copper supplements prevented the syndrome, which was characterized by demyelination of the cerebellum and spinal cord. Cavitation or gelatinous lesions of the cerebral white matter, chromatolysis, nerve cell death and myelin aplasia (failure to form during embryonic life) were also identified as copper deficiency diseases in sheep. These are identical to the classical changes of human cerebral palsy.
Famous people affected or dying of an obvious copper deficiency include: Albert Einstein (ruptured aneurysm), Paavo Airola (ruptured cerebral aneurysm), Conway Twitty (ruptured abdominal aneurysm), and George and Barbara Bush (thyroid disease and white hair). Four to six of every 100 Americans autopsied have died of a ruptured aneurysm. An additional 40 percent have aneurysms that had not ruptured.
The average well-nourished adult human body contains between 80 and 120 mg of copper. Concentrations are higher in the brain, liver, heart, and kidneys. Bone and muscle have lower percentages of copper but contain 50 percent of the body total copper reserves because of their mass. It is of interest that the greatest concentration of copper is found in the newborn. Their daily requirement is 0.08 mg/kg, toddlers require 0.04 mg/kg and adults only 0.03 mg/kg.
The average plasma copper of women ranges from 87 to 153 mg/dl. For men it ranges from 89 to 137 mg/dl. About 90 percent of the plasma copper is found in ceruloplasmin.
Copper functions as a cofactor and activator of numerous cupro-enzymes that are involved in the development and maintenance of the cardiovascular system. Deficiency of Cu in the pregnant female results in congenital defects of the heart and brain, and Kawasaki disease, cerebral palsy, and hypoplasia of the cerebellum. Deficiency of Cu also results in reduced lysyl oxidase activity causing a reduction in conversion of proelastin to elastin causing a decrease in the tensile strength of arterial walls and ruptured aneurysms. Deficiency of copper also results in lower skeletal integrity including a specific type of arthritis in children that forms bone spurs in the bone growth plate. Lack of Cu can result in myelin defects, anemia, poor hair keratinization, and loss of hair color. Nutropenia (reduced numbers of neutrophillic WBC’s or white blood cells) and leukopenia (reduced total WBC count) are the earliest indications of a copper deficiency in an infant. Infants whose diets are primarily cows milk frequently develop anemia and/or iron storage disease.
Menkes’ Kinky Hair Syndrome is thought to be a sex-linked recessive defect of copper absorption. The affected infants exhibit retarded growth, defective keratin formation of the hair, loss of hair pigment, low body temperature, degeneration and fractures of aortic elastin (aneurysms), arthritis in the growth plates of long bones, and a progressive mental deterioration. Mental deterioration results from brain tissue being totally devoid of the essential enzyme cytochrome oxidase.
Because of absorption problems of metallic copper, injections of copper and liver extracts are useful for these children. Serum and plasma copper increases 100 percent in pregnant women and women using oral contraceptives. Serum copper levels are also elevated during acute infections, liver disease, and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Accumu­lations of copper in the cornea form Kayser-Fleischer rings.
Dy—Dysprosiuma rare earth, is found in igneous rocks at 3.0 ppm, in shale at 4 to 6 ppm, sandstone at 7.2 ppm, and limestone at 0.9 ppm. Concentrations in terrestrial animals (0.01 ppm) are highest in the bones.
Er—Erbiuma rare earth, is found in igneous rock at 2.8 ppm, shale at 1.9 ppm, sandstone at 1 ppm, limestone at 0.36 ppm, land plants up to 46 ppm in Carya spp. (a variey of plant), marine animals at 0.02 to 0.04 ppm, and land animals primarily in bone.
Eu—Europium is a “light” rare earth found in igneous rocks at 1 to 2 ppm, shale at 1.1 ppm, sandstone at 0.55 ppm, limestone at 0.2 ppm, land plants at 0.021 ppm (accumulates up to 16 ppm in Carya spp.), marine animals at 0.01 to 0.06 ppm, and land animals at 0.00012 ppm in soft tissue and 0.2 ppm in bone.
Europium has extended the life of laboratory species over their normal expected lifespan by 100 percent. Europium is found in higher concentration in breast milk from women in third world countries than in American women.
F—Fluorine is found in igneous rocks at 625 ppm, in shale at 740 ppm, sandstone at 270 ppm, limestone at 330 ppm, fresh water at 0.09 ppm, sea water at 1.3 ppm, and soils at 200 ppm (flouride can be “fixed” or tightly bonded in several types of clay.) Certain types of F rich soils in Madras, Spain, and South America are toxic to grazing livestock. Fluorine is found in marine plants at 4.5 ppm, land plants at 0.5 to 40.0 ppm (accumulates in Dichapetolum cymosum), marine animals at 2.0 ppm (accumulates in fish bones), and land animals at 150 to 500 ppm in mammalian soft tissue and 1,500 ppm in teeth and bones.
Prior to 1972, fluoride was considered essential in animals because of its apparent benefit for tooth enamel in warding off dental caries (“cavities”). In 1972, Schwarz proved that fluoride was in fact an essential mineral for animals and humans.
The skeletal reserves of fluoride in an adult man can reach 2.6 grams; the average daily intake by Americans is 4.4 mg from combined sources of food and water.
Fluoridation of drinking water is still highly controversial. Some studies show that fluoridated water helps reduce fractures from osteo­porosis, while other studies showed an increase in hip fractures. Clinical toxicity is observed as dental fluorosis at fluoride concentrations of 2 to 7 ppm and osteosclerosis at 8 to 20 ppm. Chronic systemic toxicity appears when the  fluoride levels reach 20 to 80 mg per day over several years.
Approximately 10,000 American towns and cities serving 100 million people have added fluoride to their drinking water at the rate of 1 mg/L which has reportedly reduced dental caries by 60 to 70 percent. In certain western states in the United States, there is an excess of fluoride, reaching levels of 10 to 45 ppm with resultant mottling of teeth in children.
As a result of epidemiological studies by Yiamouyiannis and Burk in 1977, full scale congressional hearings were held to examine the charge that 10,000 excess cancer deaths were caused by fluoridation of certain public water systems. As a result of those hearings, the committee mandated that the U. S. Public Health Service conduct animal studies to confirm or refute the theory that fluoridated water increased cancer deaths. The studies were carried out by the National Toxicology Program under the supervision of the U.S. National Public Health Service with special focus on oral, liver, and bone cancers.
In 1990, the results of the fluoride study showed an increase in rat precancerous lesions in mucus membrane cells. There was an increase in cancers of the oral mucus membranes (squamous cell carcinoma). A rare form of osteosarcoma appeared at double the rate in males as females, and there was an increase in thyroid follicular cell tumors and liver cancer (hepatocholangio carcinoma).
FeIron is found in igneous rocks at 56,000 ppm, shale at 47,200 ppm, sandstone at 9,800 ppm, limestone at 3,800 ppm, fresh water at 0.67 ppm, sea water at 0.01 ppm, and soils at 38,000 ppm (iron content is responsible for most soil color). Iron is most available in acid soil and availability is greatly determined by bacterial activity in the soil. It’s found in marine plants at 700 ppm (very high in plankton), land plants at 140 ppm, and marine animals at 400 ppm (high in the blood of annelid worms), echinoderms, fish, and in the eggs of cephalad moluscs. Fe is essential to all land animals.
Boussingault in the 1860s was the first to regard iron as an essential nutrient for animals. During the 1920s, feeding rats on an exclusive milk diet created an animal model for iron deficiency research.
In a healthy adult human there is three to five grams of iron. The newborn infant has nearly double the amount of iron per kg than adults. Sixty to 70 percent of tissue iron is classed as essential or functional iron, and 30 to 40 percent as storage iron. The essential iron is found as an
integral part of hemoglobin, myoglobin (muscle oxygen storing pigments—particularly rich in deep diving animals such as whales, walrus, seals, etc.), and subcellular respiratory enzymes involved with oxidation and electron transfer processes.
Functions of iron include cofactor and activator of enzymes and metallo enzymes, respiratory pigments (iron is to hemoglobin what magnesium is to chlorophyll), and electron transfer for utilization of oxygen.
Iron is stored in bone marrow and liver (i.e. hemosiderin and ferritin). Heme iron from meat is 10 percent available for absorption while iron from fresh plant sources are only one percent available because of phytates. Iron absorption takes place primarily in the duodenum where the intestinal environment is still acid.
Experimental evidence shows very clearly that “pica” is a specific sign of iron deficiency. Pica can drive children and adults to eat ice (pagophagia), dirt (geophagia), or lead paint. Iron deficiency results from pregnancy, menstruation, chronic infections, hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid from salt restricted diets), chronic diarrhea, chronic bleeding (i.e. cancer, ulcers, parasites, blood clotting problems, etc.), and impaired absorption (i.e. high fat diets, high fiber diets, celiac disease, etc.). Symptoms of iron deficiency include listlessness, fatigue, heart palpitations on exertion, reduced cognition, memory deficits, sore tongue, angular stomatitis dysphagia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia. Stomach hydrochloric acid is required for optimal absorption of iron. Ascorbic acid increases the absorption of iron; clays and phytates decrease the absorption of iron. The RDA of 18 mg per day as metallic iron is too low for those eating high fiber, high phytate diets.
Excesses of iron can cause cirrhosis of the liver, fibrosis of the pancreas, diabetes, and heart failure. These diseases are not the direct toxic affects of iron, but rather the increased iron results in the increased needs of selenium, copper, zinc, etc.
Fr—Francium is found only as radioactive isotopes. The longest lived has a half life of 22 minutes.
Ga—Gallium is found in igneous rocks at 15 ppm, shale at 19 ppm, sandstone at 12 ppm, limestone at 4.0 ppm, fresh water at 0.001 ppm, sea water at 0.00003 ppm, soils at 0.4 to 6.0 ppm to 30.0 ppm, marine plants at 0.5 ppm, land plants at 0.06 ppm, marine animals at 0.5 ppm, and in land animals at 0.006 ppm. Gallium was claimed to be an essential nutrient in 1938 and again in 1958. Gallium has specific areas of metalloenzyme activity in the human brain and has been reported to specifically reduce the rate of brain cancer in laboratory animals. British research shows that supplemented diets of pregnant women reduces the rate of brain cancer in children.
GdGadolium, a rare earth, is found in igneous rocks at 5.4 ppm, shale at 4.3 ppm, sandstone at 2.6 ppm, limestone at 0.7 ppm, land plants can concentrate Gd up to 70 ppm by Carya spp, and in marine animals at 0.06 ppm. Land animals accumulate gadolium in bone and liver very quickly after absorption.
Ge—Germanium is found in igneous rocks at 5.4 ppm, shale at 1.6 ppm, sandstone at 0.8 ppm, limestone at 0.2 ppm, sea water at 0.00007 ppm, soil at 1.0 ppm in humus, especially in alkaline soils, and marine animals at 0.3 ppm. The existence of the element germanium had been predicted by Mendeleev in his periodic table, but it was not until 1886 that a German scientist, Clemens Winkler, isolated this element and named it Germanium. Radio-do-it-yourself kits from the 40s and 50s utilized the germanium diode crystal to attract the radio signal to your radio. The germanium atom is structured so it accepts and transmits electrons, thus acting as a semiconductor. It is therefore not too surprising that germanium is closely related to silica and carbon. Biologically, germanium is a highly effective electrical impulse initiator intracellularly and acts as a metallic cofactor for oxygen utilization.
In 1950, Dr. Kazuhiko Asai, a Japanese chemist, found traces of germanium in fossilized plant life. Russian researchers quickly attributed anti-cancer activity to germanium. Dr. Asai was able to connect the healing properties of certain herbs to relatively high levels of germanium. Many of these herbs are germanium accumulator plants. Germanium is known to enhance the immune system by stimulating production of natural killer cells, lymphokines such as IFN(y) interferon, macrophages, and T-suppresser cells.
Asai synthesized GE-132, carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide, in 1967 by a hydrolysis method. This organic germanium structure forms a cubic structure with three negative oxygen ions at the base of a cubic triangle. As an organic or chelate form of germanium, GE-132 is absorbed at the rate of 30 percent efficiency and the total intake is excreted in one week.
Food plants and animals contain small amounts of germanium (i.e. beans—4.67 ppm, tuna—2.3 ppm). Healing herbs such as garlic, aloe, comfrey, chlorella, ginseng, watercress, Shiitake mushroom, pearl barley, sanzukon, sushi, waternut, boxthorn seed, and wisteria knob contain germanium in amounts ranging from 100 to 2,000 ppm. The  “holy waters” at Lourdes, known worldwide for their healing properties, contains large amounts of germanium.
A severely reduced immune status, arthritis, osteoporosis, low energy, and cancer typify deficiencies of germanium.
Twenty to 30 mg per day is the recommended maintenance dose for germanium. Fifty to 100 mg per day doses are commonly used when an individual has a serious illness that requires an increased oxygen level in the body.
H—Hydrogen is found in igneous rocks at 1,000 ppm, shale at 5,600 ppm, sandstone at 1,800 ppm, limestone at 860 ppm, fresh water at 111,000 ppm, sea water at 108,000 ppm, soil at 600 to 24,000 ppm (in very acid soils it can become the major exchangeable cation), marine plants at 41,000 ppm, land plants at 55,000 ppm, marine animals at 52,000 ppm, and in land animals at 70,000 ppm. Additionally, hydrogen makes up a small portion of the gaseous atmosphere. Hydrogen functions as a major constituent of water and all organic molecules. Seventy percent of the human body is water. The regulation of the acid-base balance in the human body is in fact the regulation of the hydrogen ion (H+) levels of cellular and extracellular fluids.
The acidity of the body is critically regulated within a narrow range by numerous and complex homeostatic mechanisms. The pH of healthy blood ranges from 7.36 to 7.44. When the pH falls below 7.30, the patient has acidosis. When the pH rises above 7.44, the person has alkalosis.
Blood pH below 6.8 and above 7.8 is rapidly fatal. Intracellular pH ranges between 6.0 and 7.4. Rapid metabolism (hyperthyroid) or decreased blood flow (heart attack) increases the carbon dioxide levels and therefore decreases pH or acidifies the blood. In contrast to the internal body, the pH of secretions and excretions can be more variable and range from 1.0 in stomach acid to 8.2 in pancreatic juice and alkaline urine in vegans.
Hydrogen ions circulate in the body in two forms, volatile and non­volatile (metabolic hydrogen ions). Volatile hydrogen ions are found as a weak acid (carbonic acid), which must continuously be excreted from the lungs as carbon dioxide and water.
Non-volatile (metabolic) hydrogen ions are produced by the normal metabolic processes of the body or are consumed as part of food. The largest amounts of hydrogen ions are produced by normal and abnormal metabolism. Large amounts of hydrogen ions may be generated and/or retained as part of a disease activity (i.e. emphysema, diabetes, anxiety or loss of chloride ions, NaCl deficiency, cystic fibrosis, Addison’s Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) is controlled by the body by means of dilution, buffering respiratory control of volatile hydrogen ion concentrations and kidney control of non-volatile hydrogen ions. Buffer systems react to hydrogen ion concentrations in fractions of seconds, respiratory controls react in minutes, and the kidneys may require as much as an hour to several days to respond.
Metabolic hydrogen ions must be excreted by the kidney in one of three forms: 60 percent as ammonium ions, 40 percent as weak acids, or trace amounts as free hydrogen ions. It is the amount of free hydrogen ions in the urine that determines the urine’s pH. Acidifying the urine with unsweetened cranberry juice can often times control bladder infections (cystitis).
He—Helium is found in igneous rocks at 0.008 and seawater at 0.0000069 ppm.
Hf—Hafnium is found in igneous rocks at 3 ppm, shale at 2.8 ppm, sandstone at 3.4 ppm, limestone at 0.3 ppm, sea water at 0.000008 ppm, soil at 3.0 ppm, marine plants at 0.4 ppm, land plants at 0.01 ppm, and in land animals at 0.04 ppm.
Hg—Mercury is found in igneous rocks at 0.08 ppm, shale at 0.4 ppm, sandstone at 0.03 ppm, limestone at 0.04 ppm, fresh water at 0.00008 ppm, sea water at 0.00003 ppm, soil at 0.03 to 0.8 ppm (lowest in the surface layers of the soil because it is leached and also it is volatilized), marine plants at 0.03 ppm, land plants at 0.015 ppm (Arenaria setacea is an accumulator plant), land animals at 0.046 ppm (accumulates in the brain, kidney, liver, and bone), and marine animals at 0.0009 to 0.09 ppm.
Mercury occurs universally in the bios and has long been known as a toxic element, even though the early Chinese alchemists insisted that the regular consumption of mercury or “potable gold” was the path to immortality. Mercury is concentrated in the environment by industry, mining operations, agriculture, dental repairs (amalgams), and microorganisms that methylate mercury in the sediments at the bottoms of fresh water or salt water rivers, lakes, oceans, and seas. Mercury has been detected in all tissues of accident victims, with no known mercury exposure except dental mercury amalgam fillings.
Mercury in fish is present as methyl mercury. People who rarely eat fish have very low levels of mercury (2-5 |ig/kg). Moderate fish consumers have 10 |ng/kg. High fish consumers (especially if they eat shark, tuna, or swordfish) have higher values of 400 |ng/kg.
Mercury mineworkers accumulate mercury, which can reach levels that produce disease.
The biological half-life of methyl mercury in humans is 70 days and four days for inorganic mercury. The placenta acts as a barrier against the passage of inorganic mercury but not methyl mercury. Methyl mercury transfers very easily to the fetus (“congenital” Minamata Disease in Japanese infants).
The main industrial source of mercury is the chloralkali industry. Additional major sources include the manufacture of electrical appliances, paint, dental amalgams, pharmaceuticals slimicides and algicides (paper and pulp industry), seed treatments as agricultural fungicides— especially dangerous as methyl mercury and burning of fossil fuels.
The metabolic antagonism between mercury and selenium results in the protection from selenium poisoning by mercury and the protection from mercury poisoning by selenium supplementation. Because a mutual antagonism between Hg and Se exists, Se protects the human kidney from necrosis (tissue death) by mercury poisoning and the placental transfer of mercury. Mercury vapor from dental amalgam has been shown to increase the percent of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the gut from 9 percent to 70 percent in monkeys given dental mercury fillings. The drug resistant bacterial population dropped to 12 percent when the fillings were removed.
Mercury poisoning from inhalation of mercury vapors was reported during the Victorian Age in “hatters” who used mercury nitrate paste to prevent molds from growing on felt hats, hence the expression “mad as a hatter” from Alice in Wonderland. Goldsmiths and mirror workers could also suffer from inhalation poisoning. In modern times dentists have developed several disease syndromes including multiple sclerosis, ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), and Parkinson’s Disease depending on what part of the brain was most severely affected by mercury toxicity. Annette Funicello contracted multiple sclerosis, which is believed to be caused by vapors from dental mercury amalgams.
The manifestations of direct Hg poisoning are primarily neurological (i.e. tremors, vertigo, irritability, moodiness [suicidal], depression), salivation, inflammation of the mouth, stomatitis, and diarrhea.
In poisoning with inorganic mercury, the liver and kidneys are the target organs primarily affected. Poisoning with the more toxic alkyl mercury results in progressive lack of coordination, loss of vision, heart palpitations, loss of hearing, and mental deterioration caused by a toxic neuroencephalopathy in which the neuronal cells of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex are selectively affected.
In 1962, Minamata, Japan, mercury contaminated factory effluent (wastewater) was dumped into the bay, which in turn contaminated aquatic plant material which was eaten by fish. The contaminated fish were eaten by the bay residents with disastrous results. The Minamata disaster was characterized by a high incidence of “congenital” damage to the newborn (i.e. mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and high infant mortality).
In Iran, large scale methyl mercury poisoning was reported when large numbers of people were fed bread made with mercurial fungicide treated seed grain and meat (liver and kidneys) from animals fed the treated grain. The result of consuming the mercury contaminated grains was thousands of babies born retarded and a high incidence of congenital brain defects including cerebral palsy.
Ho—Homium, a rare earth, is found in igneous rocks at 1.2 ppm, in shale at 0.6 ppm, sandstone at 0.51 ppm, limestone at 0.17 ppm, land plants at 16 ppm in Carya spp., marine animals at 0.005 to 0.01 ppm, and land animals at 0.5 ppm in bone.
I—Iodine is found in igneous rocks at 0.5 ppm, in shale at 2.3 ppm, sandstone at 1.7 ppm, limestone at 1.2 ppm, fresh water at 0.002 ppm, sea water at 0.06 ppm, soil at 5 ppm (strongly bound in humus—large areas of earth are known to be devoid of I), land plants at 0.42 ppm, marine animals at 1.0 to 150 ppm, and in land animals at 0.43 ppm (concentrates in the thyroid gland and hair). Iodine is known to be essential to red and brown algae and all vertebrates. In combination with the amino acid tyrosine, iodine is manufactured into the thyroid hormone thyroxin. Iodine intake is usually low to begin with, but since Americans have begun restricting their salt intake at the advice of their doctors, goiter and hypothyroidism has become epidemic.
The average American takes in 170-250 meg/day of iodine. Humans lose considerable amounts of it in their sweat—up to 146 meg/day with only moderate exercise. Metallic iodine is not toxic up to 2,000 meg/day. Goiter develops in Japanese living along the seacoast despite high daily iodine consumption. Japanese subjects being fed Chinese cabbage, turnips, buckwheat, noodles, 2.0 meg iodine, soybean, or seaweed developed goiter in all groups except the seaweed eating group.
Northern parts of the Adictis Islands had more clinical goiter than the southern areas while the southwest was goiter-free. Forty-six percent of the population of Pisila, 40 percent of the population of Polje, and only 3 percent of the population of Milahnici were affected. There is identical iodine content of the soil in all three locations. A severe copper deficiency in the soils of the north and the south cause the deficiency state because copper is a required cofactor to utilize iodine.
Some one million Americans have either a hypothyroid (low, under­active) or a hyperthyroid (overactive) condition. Thyroid hormones control and regulate digestion, heart rate, body temperature, sweat gland activity, nervous and reproductive system, general metabolism, and body weight.
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism:
Hashmoto’s disease Fatigue
Cold intolerance
Muscle aches and pains
Heavy or more frequent periods
Low sex drive
Brittle nails
Weight gain
Hair loss
Muscle cramps
Elevated blood cholesterol
Puffy face
Dry skin and hair
Inability to concentrate
Poor memory
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Grave’s disease
Heat intolerence
Excessive sweating
Lighter/less frequent periods
Hand tremors
Rapid pulse
Exophthalmos (“bug-eyes”) Weight loss
Increased appetite
Muscle weakness
Frequent bowel movements
Many foods and food additives are known as “goitrogens” because they interfere with the thyroid metabolism and produce thyroid disease. These foods and food additives are nitrates, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, etc.
In—Indium is found in igneous rocks at 0.05 to 1.0 ppm, land plants at 0.62 ppm, and land animals at 0.016 ppm.
Ir—Iridium is found in igneous rocks at 0.001 ppm, land plants at 0.62 ppm, and land animals at 0.00002 ppm.
K—Potassium is found in igneous rocks at 20,000 ppm, shale at 26,000 ppm, sandstone at 10,700 ppm, limestone at 2,700 ppm, fresh water at 2.3 ppm, sea water at 380 ppm, soil at 14,000 ppm (a major exchangeable cation in all, but most in alkaline soils), marine plants at 52,000 ppm, land plants at 14,000 ppm, marine animals at 5,000 to 30,000 ppm, and land animals at 7,400 ppm (highest levels in soft tissue).
Potassium is essential to all organisms and is the major cation in cell cytoplasm with a wide variety of electrochemical and catalytic functions for enzyme systems. Potassium constitutes five percent of the total mineral content of the body. It is the major cation of the intracellular fluid and there is a small amount in the extracellular fluid. With sodium, the other “electrolyte,” K participates in the maintenance of normal water balance, osmotic equilibrium, and acid-base balance. Potassium participates with Ca in the regulation of neuromuscular activity.
Potassium is easily absorbed. Ninety percent of ingested K is excreted through the urine. There is essentially no storage of K in the human body, thus requiring a significant daily intake of 5,000 mg.
Muscular weakness and mental apathy are features of K deficiency. Hypokalemic cardiac failure is the most serious K deficiency event. Diuretics, both natural and prescribed, sweating, colds and flu, vomiting, and diarrhea increase the rate of loss of all minerals, including K, compared with the normal expected excretion rate.
Kr—Krypton is found in igneous rocks at 0.0001 ppm and sea water at 0.0025 ppm. Krypton is legendary as the home planet of “Superman” and the source of the mineral “kryptonite” which had a crippling effect on “Superman.” In fact, krypton is totally harmless to humans and may in fact be an essential element.
La—Lanthanum is a “light” rare earth and is found in igneous rocks at 30 ppm, shale at 20 ppm, sandstone at 7.5 ppm, limestone at 6.2 ppm, sea water at 0.000012 ppm, soil at 30 ppm, marine plants at 10 ppm, land plants at 0.085 ppm, marine mammals at 0.1 ppm, and in land animals at 0.0001 ppm in soft tissue and 0.27 ppm in bone. Notably the yeast Candida albicans accumulates up to 370 ppm/day. This may be how Candida causes a debilitating energy sapping “chronic fatigue” disease by “stealing” lanthanum from the patient.
The growth of the protozoa Blepherisma and Tetrahymena pyriformis is stimulated and their life span doubled by the presence of the rare earth lanthanum at concentrations of 0.32 ppm.
Li—Lithium is found in igneous rocks 20 ppm, shale at 66 ppm, sandstone at 15 ppm, limestone at 5 ppm, fresh water at 0.0011 ppm, sea water at 0.18 ppm, soil at 30 ppm (Li + is freely mobile in the soil), marine plants at 5 ppm, land plants at 0.1 ppm, marine animals at 1 ppm, and in land animals at 0.02 ppm. Since 1915, the risk of clinical depression nearly doubles with each succeeding generation. Myrna M. Weissman, a psychiatrist at Columbia University, New York City, says that, “Depression is a worldwide phenomenon happening at younger and younger ages.” In 1935, the age of early onset of depression was during the early 20s. By 1955 onset of depression dropped to between 15 and 20 years of age. One in four women and one in ten men will develop depression. Prozac, America’s “leading” antidepressant pharmaceutical, was introduced in 1987. Sales soared to $350 million in 1989, more than was spent on all antidepressants just two years earlier. Prozac sales topped $1 billion in 1995 as a result of 650,000 prescriptions per month!
While the professional psychiatrist says that depression and manic depression are due to feelings that we are out of control of our lives, negative thinking, and self-recrimination (“I’m a loser”), they treat depression successfully with the trace mineral lithium. Depression and manic depression with all that implies are simply a lithium deficiency aggravated by high sugar consumption.
Animal studies show that a deficiency of lithium results in reproduc­tive failure, infertility, reduced growth rate, shortened life expectancy, and behavioral problems. In humans, manic depression, depression, “bi-polar” disease, rages, road rage, Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde behavior, hyper­activity, ADD, ADHD, and “bad seeds” are hallmarks of Li deficiency aggravated by a high sugar intake.
Chelated Li supplemented at 1,000 to 2,000 |Lig/d {micrograms per day?} causes a dose dependent increase in hair Li levels. Hair Li levels increased after four weeks of supplementation and leveled off and became stationary after three months. When the Li supplementation was stopped, hair Li levels dropped to presupplement values in two months. This scenario does not extend to metallic lithium carbonate. A comparison of 2,648 subjects showed that 65 percent had hair Li values ranging between 0.04 to 0.14 |ug/G, 16 percent contained more than 0.14 |i,g/G and 18.4 percent had less than 0.04 |ig/G. The highest levels of Li were found in university students from Tijuana, Mexico. The lowest were found in Munich, Germany.
Normal controls showed almost 400 times more hair Li than do the violent criminals from California, Florida, Texas, and Oregon. The estimated daily intake of Li by the EPA ranges from 650 to 3,100 |ig/d, however, much of the ingested Li is metallic and not biologically available.
Lu—Lutecium, a rare earth, is found in igneous rocks at 0.5 ppm, shale at 0.33 ppm, sandstone at 0.096 ppm, limestone at 0.067 ppm, land plants at up to 4.5 ppm by Carya spp., marine animals at 0.003 ppm, land animals at 0.003 ppm, and land animals at 0.00012 ppm in soft tissue and 0.08 ppm in bone.
Mg—Magnesium is found in igneous rocks at 23,300 ppm, in shale at 15,000 ppm, sandstone at 10,700 ppm, limestone at 2,700 ppm, fresh water at 4,1 ppm, seawater at 1,350 ppm, and in soil at 5,000 ppm (highest in soil derived from basalt, serpentine, or dolomite). Mg is the second most common exchangeable cation in most soils. Mg is found in marine plants at 5,200 ppm, land plants at 3,200 ppm, marine animals at at 5,000 ppm, and in land animals at 1,000 ppm where it accumulates in mammalian bone.
Magnesium is essential to all living organisms and has electro­chemical, catalytic, and structural functions. It activates numerous enzymes and is a constituent of all chlorophylls.
The adult human contains 20 to 28 grams of total body Mg. Approxi­mately 60 percent is found in bone. Twenty-six percent is associated with skeletal muscle and the balance is distributed between various organs and body fluids. Serum levels of Mg range from 1.5 to 2.1 mEq/L (a measure of electrolytes) and it is second to K as an intracellular cation. Half of the Mg, including most that is bound in the bone, is not exchangeable.
Magnesium is required for the production and transfer of energy for protein synthesis, for contractility of muscle and excitability of nerves, and as a cofactor in myriad enzyme systems. AN EXCESS OF MAGNESIUM WILL INHIBIT BONE CALCIFICATION. Calcium and Mg have antagonistic roles in normal muscle contraction, calcium acting as the stimulator and Mg as the relaxer. An excessive amount of Ca can induce signs of Mg deficiency.
Perhaps the most important manifestation of Mg deficiency in modern times is “malignant calcification.” Malignant calcification appears as calcium deposits in soft tissue, especially the media or middle layer of arterial walls. Magnesium deficiency appears to be the basic root cause of arteriosclerotic calcium deposits, not elevated blood cholesterol!
Magnesium Deficiency Diseases:
Asthma Anorexia
Menstrual migraines
Growth failure
ECG changes
Neuromuscular problems
Tetany (convulsions)
Muscular weakness
Muscle “ties”
Calcification of arterial media “Malignant calcification” of soft tissue
The rate of absorption of Mg ranges from 24 to 85 percent. The lesser absorption rate is for metallic sources of Mg, the higher rates of absorption are associated with plant derived colloidal mineral sources. Vitamin D has no effect on Mg absorption. The presence of fat, phytates, and calcium reduces the efficiency of absorption. High performance athletes lose a considerable amount of Mg in sweat.
The RDA for Mg is 350 mg/day for adult males, 300 mg/day for adult females, and 450 mg/day for pregnant and lactating females. If the kidneys are healthy there is no evidence of toxicity at up to 6,000 mg/day.
Mn—Manganese is found in igneous rocks at 950 ppm, shale at 850 ppm, sandstone at 50 ppm, limestone at 1,100 ppm, fresh water at 0.012 ppm, sea water at 0.002 ppm, soil at 850 ppm (can be a major exchangeable cation in very acid soil), marine animals at 1.0 to 60 ppm (lowest in fish), and in land animals at 0.2 ppm with the highest concentration in mammalian liver and kidney. Total body content of Mn in humans is only 10 to 20 mg. Manganese is essential to all known living organisms. It activates numerous enzyme systems including those involved with glucose metabolism, energy production, and superoxide dismutase. It is a major constituent of several metalloenzymes, hormones, and proteins of humans. Manganese is part of the developmental process and the structure of the three fragile ear bones and joint cartilage. Excessive levels of Mn found in certain community water supplies and in some industrial processes can produce a Parkinsonian syndrome or a psychiatric disorder (locura manganica) resembling schizophrenia.
Deficiency diseases of Mn are very striking, ranging from severe birth defects (congenital ataxia, deafness, chondrodystrophy), asthma, convulsions, retarded growth, skeletal defects, disruption of fat and carbohydrate metabolism to joint problems in children and adults (i.e. TMJ, Repetitive Motion Syndrome, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome).
Deficiency Diseases of Manganese:
Congenital ataxia
Deafness (malformation of otolithes) Asthma
Chondromalacia Chondrodystrophy “Slipped Tendon”
Defects of chondroitin sulfate metabolism (poor cartilage
formation) TMJ
Repetitive motion syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome Convulsions
Infertility (failure to ovulate, testicular atrophy)
Still births/spontaneous abortions (miscarriages)
Loss of libido in males and females
Retarded growth rate
Shortened long bones Repetitive stress injury or repetitive motion syndrome now costs corporate America twenty billion dollars per year and accounts for 56 percent of the 331,600 gradual onset work related illnesses. In 1991, orthopedic surgeons performed 100,000 carpal tunnel operations (at $4,000 per surgery) with lost work, wages, and medical cost of over $29,000 per case.
At risk for the repetitive motion syndrome are those working in the world of computers: journalism, airline reservations, directory assistance, law, data entry, graphic design, and securities brokerage. Chief among the blue-collar victims are the auto assembly workers, chicken pluckers, meat cutters, postal employees, dock workers, etc. Repetitive motion syndrome was observed three centuries ago in monks who were scribes and was described in 1717 by Bernardo Ramazzini, an Italian physician (considered the father of occupational medicine).
Repetitive motion syndrome victims have reached such numbers that federal legislation has been passed in the form of OSHA and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to ensure workplace safety. Large numbers of economically correct keyboards and devices have been developed. We see literally millions of people at work with Velcro wrist, neck, elbow, finger, knee, back, and hip supports—all for manganese deficiencies!!!
Mo—Molybdenum is found in igneous rocks at 1.5 ppm, shale at 2.6 ppm, sandstone at 0.02 ppm, limestone at 0.4 ppm, fresh water at 0.00035 ppm, sea water at 0.01 ppm, soil at 2 ppm (strongly concentrated by humus, especially in alkaline soils; a few soils worldwide are rich enough in molybdenum to cause Mo poisoning in animals consuming the plants). Numerous soils are known for Mo deficiency. Mo is found in marine plants at 0.45 ppm, land plants at 0.9 ppm, marine animals at 0.6 to 2.5 ppm, and in land animals at 0.2 ppm with the highest levels in the liver and kidney.
Molybdenum is essential to all organisms as a constituent of numerous metalloenzymes. Molybdenum is known to be an integral part of no less than three essential enzymes: Xanthine oxidase, Aldehyde oxidase, and Sulfite oxidase.
The average American daily intake in food ranges from 76 to 1109 meg per day. The RDA for Mo is 250 meg per day. Toxicity occurs at 10 mg per day as a gout-like disease and interference with copper metabolism.
N—Nitrogen is found in igneous rocks at 20 ppm, fresh water at 0.23 ppm, sea water at 0.5 ppm, soils at 1,000 ppm (99 percent present as non-basic N bound in humus), marine plants at 15,000 ppm, land plants at 30,000 ppm, marine animals at 75,000 ppm, and in land animals at 100,000 ppm.
Nitrogen functions as a structural atom in protein, nucleic acids (RNA, DNA), and a wide variety of organic molecules. Dietary N (as protein) furnishes the amino acids for synthesis of tissue protein and other special metabolic functions:
1. Proteins are used to repair worn out body tissue.
2. Proteins are used to build new tissue (muscle, infant growth, childhood development, teenagers, pregnancy, maintenance, and repair).
3. Proteins can be an emergency source of heat and energy (albeit more expensive in biological terms than fat or carbohydrate).
4. Proteins make up essential body secretions and fluids (i.e. enzymes, hormones, mucus, milk, semen, etc.).
5. Blood plasma proteins maintain osmotic fluid balance. Hypoproteinemia results in edema.
6. Proteins maintain acid-base balance of blood and tissue.
7. Proteins aid in transport of other essential substances (i.e. minerals, fats, vitamins, etc.).
8. Proteins make up basic immunoglobulins (antibodies).
9. Proteins provide a nitrogen pool for the synthesis of amino acids and new proteins.
Classic protein deficiency results in infertility, poor growth, lowered immune status, edema, and Kwashiorkor (potbellied, thin children of Third World countries). The availability and usability of N from various foods are quite different and must be considered when choosing N sources.
Nitrogen/Protein Utilization Values of Common Foods
Nitrogen Source (Protein) Chemical Score % Utilization
Whole egg 100 94
Human milk 100 87
Cow’s milk 95 82
Soybean 74 65
Sesame 50 54
Peanut 65 47
Cotton seed 81 59
Nitrogen/Protein Utilization Values of Common Foods (cont)
Nitrogen Source (Protein) Chemical Score % Utilization Maize (corn) 49 52 Millet 63 44 Rice 67 59 Wheat 53 48
Mixing protein sources such as beans and rice, wheat and legumes, or vegetable and animal tends to improve the utilization of the vegetable protein source and make up for missing amino acids.
Na—Sodium is found in igneous rocks at 23,600 ppm, shale at 9,600 ppm, sandstone at 3,300 ppm, limestone at 400 ppm, fresh water at 6.3 ppm, sea water at 10,500 ppm, soil at 6,300 ppm (is a major exchange­able cation in soils, especially alkaline soil), marine plants at 33,000 ppm, land plants at 1,200 ppm, marine animals at 4,000 ppm, and in land animals at 4,000 ppm. “Salt hunger” dates back to the very begin­ning of animals and man and is one of the very basic cravings of living organisms. Carnivores (man or beast) do not show the great craving for salt because meat contains relatively large amounts of NaCl. Herbivores and human vegetarians demand large amounts of NaCl in grains, vegetables, nuts, and fruits. The average sodium dietary intake per day in western cultures is five to twelve grams per day while the Japanese, who outlive Americans by an average of four years, consume an average of 28 grams per day!
Sodium, chlorine, and potassium are three indispensable “electrolytes” so intimately associated in the body that they can be presented together. Sodium makes up two percent, potassium five percent, and chlorine three percent of the total mineral content of the human body. All three are widely distributed throughout the body tissues and fluids, however, Na and CI are primarily extracellular (outside the cell), while K is an intracellular (inside the cell) mineral. Sodium, potassium, and chlorine are involved in at least four important physiological functions in the body:
1. Maintenance of normal water balance and distribution.
2. Maintenance of normal osmotic equilibrium.
3. Maintenance of normal acid-base balance.
4. Maintenance of normal muscular irritability.
Hormonal control of Na, K, and CI balance is regulated by the adrenal cortex hormones as well as by the anterior pituitary gland. Addison’s Disease, a loss of function of the adrenal cortex, results in the loss of Na and K retention with clinical signs of general weakness, muscle cramps, weight loss, and a marked “salt hunger.” The symptoms can be relieved with the supplementation of NaCl or by administering adrenal cortical hormones.
Deficiencies of NaCl occur primarily in hot weather (e.g. the American heat wave of 1993), heavy work in a hot climate, or exercise when large volumes of sweat are produced for body cooling. “Water intoxication” occurred in infants fed low sodium formulas because of doctors’ insane paranoia with Na has been known to result in brain swelling causing death from a simple Na deficiency. The treatment for Na deficiency is water and salt, either orally or IV (saline 0.9 per cent).
Nb—Niobium is found in igneous rocks at 20 ppm, shale at 11 ppm, sandstone at 0.05 ppm, limestone 0.3 ppm, sea water at 0.00001 ppm, land plants at 0.3 ppm, and marine animals at 0.001 ppm.
Nd—Neodymiuma rare earth, is found in igneous rock at 28 ppm, shale at 16 ppm, sandstone at 11 ppm, limestone at 4.3 ppm, marine plants at 5 ppm, land plants accumulates up to 460 ppm in Carya spp., marine animals at 0.5 ppm, and accumulates in the liver and bone of land animals. Neodymium is a “light rare earth” proven to enhance normal cell growth and double the life span of laboratory species.
Ne—Neon is found in igneous rocks at 0.005 ppm and sea water at 0.00014 ppm.
Ni—Nickel is found in igneous rocks at 75 ppm, shale at 68 ppm, sandstone at 2.0 ppm, limestone at 20 ppm, fresh water at 0.01 ppm, sea water at 0.0054 ppm, soils at 40 ppm (higher in soils derived from serpentine), marine plants at 3 ppm, land plants at 3 ppm (accumulated by Alyssum bertalonii), marine animals at 0.4 to 25 ppm, and land animals at 0.8 ppm (is found in RNA).
Symptoms of Nickel Deficiency:
( Poor growth
< Anemia
< Depressed oxidative ability of the liver
< Increased newborn mortality ( Rough/dry hair
( Dermatitis
( Delayed puberty
( Poor zinc absorption
Less than 10 percent of ingested metallic nickel is absorbed. Nickel deficiency was first reported in 1970. Nickel functions as a cofactor for metalloenzymes and facilitates gastrointestinal absorption of iron and zinc. Optimal tissue levels of vitamin B12 are necessary for the optimal biological function of nickel. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in an increased need for nickel by animals and man.
Np—Neptunium. All isotopes of neptunium are radioactive. The half-life of Np is 2.2 x 10(6). Neptunium accumulates in mammalian bone after ingestion. Neptunium has been found in freshwater organisms in the Hanford River (USA).
O—Oxygen is found in igneous rocks at 464,000 ppm, shale at 483,000 ppm, sandstone at 492,000 ppm, limestone at 497,000 ppm, fresh water at 889,000 ppm, sea water at 857,000 ppm, soils at 490,000 ppm, marine plants at 470,000 ppm, land plants at 410,000 ppm (except anaerobic organisms), marine animals at 400,000 ppm, and land animals at 186,000 ppm. Terrestrial O consists of 99.76 percent (16) O with a half-life of less than two minutes.
Oxygen is a structural atom of water (in and out of living systems) and all organic compounds of biological interest, 02 is required for respiration by all aerobic organisms. We can live for 30 days without food, three to seven days without water under ideal circumstances, but only four minutes without gaseous oxygen. This critical requirement for oxygen makes it the most important of all elements from the standpoint of immediate survival and maintenance. According to the 1980s U.S. Geological Survey, our earth’s atmosphere had 50 percent oxygen at the time when dinosaurs flourished. These oxygen levels were arrived at by inserting microneedles into trapped air bubbles in polar ice and determining the oxygen levels in the prehistoric ice. Some paleon­tologists claim that the simultaneous and universal demise of the dinosaurs followed the widespread quieting of the earth’s volcanoes, which reduced the atmospheric levels of C02, which in turn reduced the oxygen levels to 38 percent. It is theorized that the 12 percent drop in the earth’s oxygen levels was sufficient to cause the apocalyptic end of the dinosaurs.
The Geographical Survey also reported that the earth’s atmosphere still contained 38 percent oxygen as late as one hundred years ago. During the 1950s the percentage of oxygen in our atmosphere dropped to 21 percent and today only 19 percent of our gaseous atmosphere is oxygen. The continued drop in oxygen levels reflects an increase in oxygen consuming species and fossil fuel combustion (i.e. vehicles, electric, and power generating plants). Combined with increased consumption is lower oxygen production (i.e. decreasing acreage of rain forests and aquatic algae). The net result of this continued drop in oxygen levels is a relative “anaerobic state” compared with the 38 percent of just 100 years ago and a very dramatic “anaerobic state” compared with the 50 percent oxygen levels 75 million years ago.
Most pathogenic organisms (diseases producing germs) are by themselves anaerobic. They are “happier,” and flourish and reproduce with more vigor in the absence of oxygen. You know them as gangrene organisms, type A Streptococcus, etc. They are able to survive and grow in living cells weakened by low oxygen environments, which are also conducive for the growth of viruses, yeast, fungus, cancer, etc. The question is why have anaerobic diseases “suddenly” appeared in the 80s and 90s, diseases that we have little or no human history or experience? Regardless of the name, tuberculosis, consumption, or scrofula can be found in five thousand-year-old mummies from Egypt and China, one thousand-year-old corpses from Peru, and in ancient writings from the Greeks and Romans. The “new” modern day anaerobic diseases have no history with humans, nor will you find anything in biblical or ancient writings describing HIV, EBV, CMV, Herpes II, Hanta virus, Candida albicans yeast, Toxic Shock Syndrome, E. coli, or “flesh eating” type A Streptococcus.
The most plausible theory is that the anaerobic disease causing organisms laid around in a dormant state as long as the atmospheric oxygen remained high (i.e. 50,38, or even 21 percent) and inhibited their activity and growth. With the precipitous dip in atmospheric oxygen we are having an “oxygen counter revolution” with a return to an anaerobic bios.
Anaerobic Diseases of Humans
Disease Year of Appearance
Mycoplasma (rheumatoid arthritis
and “Desert Storm Syndrome”) 1958
Herpes II (sexually transmitted herpes) 1978
HIV (AIDS virus) 1982
EBV, CMV (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) 1982
Hanta Virus (Four Corners Disease) 1993
Ebola Virus BACTERIA
Staphylococcus (Toxic Shock Syndrome)
E. coli (Toxic Shock Syndrome)
Type A Streptococcus (“Flesh-eating” Strep) 1996
1982 1993 1994
Candida albicans (“Candida”) Coccidioidomycosis (“Valley Fever”)
1900—35/yr, 1992—1,450/yr 1900—1/10, 1994—2/3
Cancer (all types)
Dr. Otto Warburg of the Max Plank Institute, Germany, was the recipient of two unshared Nobel Prizes. Linus Pauling was the only other individual to be awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes. One of Warburg’s Nobel’s came for discovering the amino acid and describing the basic composition of proteins and the second for discovering that the metabolism of the cancer cell is fermentative and anaerobic while the normal noncancerous cell is aerobic. During the 1950s, Warburg was able to demonstrate clearly that cancer cells ferment sugar under anaerobic conditions and die in the presence of oxygen.
Neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that help defend us by identifying, engulfing, and destroying invading micro-organisms (i.e. virus, yeast, fungus, etc.), parasites, and cancer cells, use hydrogen peroxide as their “lethal weapon.” Neutrophils are packed with small organelles (microscopic organs) called peroxisomes, whose sole function is to produce hydrogen peroxide and inject it onto the captured pathogen or cancer cell for the specific purpose of destroying it. Neutrophils tend to be very sloppy, dribbling their over-production of hydrogen peroxide freely into the blood stream. The potential danger of hydrogen peroxide free in the blood stream could be a loose cannon, but fortunately we humans are blessed with a protective ubiquitous enzyme called catalase. Catalase literally covers our red blood cells and coats the inside walls of our blood vessels. The function of catalase is to rapidly facilitate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide down to water (H20) and singlet oxygen atom (O).
There are concerns by the uninitiated regarding the “free radical” status of singlet oxygen which has a free electron. When singlet or atomic oxygen comes into direct contact with tissue cells outside of the circulatory system (i.e. cell culture, test tube, wounds, etc.) the cells will die. In the whole animal or human other factors come into play to prevent “free radical” damage. When ingested in proper dilution on an empty stomach or administered intravenously under proper conditions, food grade hydrogen peroxide is readily absorbed through the stomach and duodenal walls directly into the blood stream where it is immediately broken down into water and singlet oxygen. The free electron of the singlet oxygen either combines with a free electron of a carcinogenic free electron or with the free electron of another singlet oxygen, becoming 02.
Carcinogenic free electrons frequently remain free electrons under many circumstances. They are actually quite happy with their free electron status. On the other hand, the free electron of the singlet oxygen does not like to be a singlet electron and if it doesn’t locate another free electron to attach to, it will grab onto another singlet oxygen in nanoseconds becoming atmospheric 02—the required stuff of respiration.
Ozone 03 —> H202+ O-
catalase —> H20 + 02
Oxygen in the form of hydrogen peroxide has been used topically, intravenously, and orally since the Civil War. It has been used widely in Europe for over 50 years for alternative cancer therapies, circulatory disease, arteriosclerosis, emphysema, asthma, gangrene, and more recently as a therapy for stroke patients.
Stroke patients have inactive but living cells surrounding the stroke site known as “sleeping beauty” cells that can be reactivated or jump started when they are exposed to several atmospheres of oxygen in hyperbaric chambers. Athletic injuries can also be treated by putting the injured athlete into a hyperbaric oxygen chamber. The healing time is shortened significantly so the athlete can return to play in weeks instead of months.
Os—Osmium is found in igneous rocks at 0.0015 ppm. It oxidizes organic matter as Os04 and is reduced to Os.
P—Phosphorus is found in igneous rocks at 1,050 ppm, shale at 700 ppm, sandstone at 170 ppm, limestone at 400 ppm, fresh water at 0.005 ppm, sea water at 0.07 ppm, and in soil at 650 ppm where it has been “fixed” by hydrous oxides of Al and Fe in acid soil. P is found in marine plants at 3,500 ppm, land plants at 2,300 ppm, marine animals at 4,000 to 18,000 ppm, and land animals at 17,000 to 44,000 ppm.
Phosphorus is an extremely important essential mineral, however, it gets little or no attention from nutritionists because it is widely available in all foods. Phosphorus is a major structural mineral for bones and teeth. It has more functions in the human than any other mineral including its role as a vital constituent of nucleic acids, activating enzymes, and for several steps of the ATP energy cycle, RBC metabolism. A complete discussion of P would require a discussion of every metabolic function in the body. Second in abundance only to calcium in the human body, it comprises 22 percent of the body’s total mineral content. The human body contains about 800 grams of P, just short of two pounds, of which 700 grams is found in bones and teeth as insoluble calcium phosphate.
The balance of P in the human body is found as biologically active intra and extracellular colloidal P in combination with carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and a wide variety of other biologically active organic compounds including the blood’s major buffer system. B-complex vitamins function as coenzymes to intracellular metabolic functions only when combined with phosphorus.
Phosphorus is part of most proteins and as such becomes problematic because elevated P intake increases Ca requirements when “high protein diets” are consumed. Under those circumstances P can aggravate osteo­porosis, arthritis, high blood pressure, loosen teeth, etc. Phosphorus is present as phytates in cereals and whole grain flours, therefore, if bread is made from unleavened flours, the phytic acid will complex with Ca, Fe, Zn, and other minerals further lowering their absorption rate.
The average adult human dietary intake of P is 1,000 to 1,500 mg/day. In adults and older children, the absorption of metallic P is limited to about three to five per cent and as high as eight to 12 percent in infants. Mixed dietary sources of chelated P may be absorbed at the rate of 40 to 50 percent. Optimal absorption of metallic and chelated P occurs when the dietary Ca:P ratio is 1:1. Organically bound colloidal P is absorbed up to 98 percent.
Deficiencies of P have long been recognized in livestock. Symptoms of P deficiency include the behavior of pica and cribbing and fractures. Phosphorus deficiency has only recently been recognized in humans. The widespread, universal, and ultimately fatal results of P deficiency are the result of its widespread biological functions, significantly as the result of a decrease in ATP synthesis (complete metabolic energy failure) with associated neuromuscular, skeletal, blood, and kidney disease.
Clinical P depletion and resultant low blood P (hypophosphatemia) without P supplementation, excessive use of antacids, hyperpara­thyroidism (low calcium/high phosphate diets are the cause of this one), improper treatment of diabetic acidosis, use of diuretics, sweating during exercise, and work and alcoholism with and without liver disease. Vegetarians and vegans who do supplement with minerals rarely have P deficiency, however, because of their high phytic acid intake. They tend to always have other mineral deficiencies including Ca, Cu, Cr, V, Li, and Zn.
Pa—Protoactinium is found in igneous rocks at 1.4 x 10 (-6) ppm and sea water at 2.4 x 10 (-31) ppm. All isotopes of Pa are radioactive with a half-life of 32,000 years. Protoactinium accumulates in mammalian bone after ingestion.
Pb—Lead is found in igneous rocks at 12.5 ppm, shale at 20 ppm, sandstone at 7 ppm, limestone at 9 ppm, soil at 10 ppm (higher in limestone soils and humus), fresh water at 0.005 ppm, sea water at 0.00008 ppm, marine plants at 8.4 ppm, land plants at 2.7 ppm (many plant species are adapted to grow in Pb-rich soils and accumulate Pb including Amorpha canescens), marine animals at 0.5 ppm (highest in fish bones), and in land animals at 2.0 ppm. The highest Pb levels are found in bone, liver, and kidney. Lead is found as a required part of the RNA/DNA duplicating system.
Mineral deficient animals and children with the symptoms of pica and cribbing, craving for non-food items (i.e. paint, sand, dirt, etc.), are very susceptible to lead poisoning (“plumbism”). Infants and children with pica will chew on their toys, cribs, windowsills, caulking, furniture, and paint. A chip of lead paint the size of a penny can contain as much as 50 to 100 |ig of lead. Consuming this much lead daily over a three-month period will result in lead poisoning.
The “normal” background blood lead level is below 40 |ng/dl. Child­ren with blood lead above 60 to 80 |ig/dl have symptoms of vomiting, irritability, weight loss, muscular weakness, headaches, abdominal pain, insomnia, and anorexia. Children with blood levels of lead above 80 |Lig/dl show anemia, kidney disease, peripheral neuritis, ataxia, and muscular uncoordination, joint pain, and encephalopathy (brain damage, learning disabilities, etc.) with eventual death.
The best approach to treating lead poisoning is to supplement with all 90 essential nutrients to eliminate pica and cribbing and further ingestion of lead, restoring fluid, and electrolyte balance. In addition, the use of IV or IM chelation therapy using EDTA (ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid) and BAL (British Anti-Lewisite) for a minimum of five days. It is not unusual for as many as 25 percent of Pb poisoned individuals to have residual loss of IQ, loss of coordination, hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and impulsiveness.
Pd—Palladium is found in igneous rocks at 0.01 ppm and land animals at 0.002 ppm. Palladium accumulates in mammalian liver and kidney.
Pm—Promethium isotopes are all radioactive with a half-life of 2.6 years. Promethium is an important fission product that has now entered the biosphere. Prior to man-made nuclear explosions, Pm did not exist in nature. Pm accumulates in mammalian bone and liver after ingestion.
Po—Polonium is found in igneous rocks at 2 x 10 (-10) ppm.
Pr—Praseodymium is a “light” rare earth found in igneous rock at 8.2 ppm, shale at 6 ppm, sandstone at 2.8 ppm, limestone at 1.4 ppm, marine plants at 5 ppm, land plants accumulates up to 46 ppm (Carya spp.), marine animals at 0.5 ppm, and in land animals at 1.5 ppm (accumulates in liver and bone).
Pt—Platinum is found in igneous rocks at 0.005 ppm and land animals at 0.002 ppm.
Pu—PlutoniumAll plutonium isotopes are radioactive with a half-life of 24,000 years. Plutonium was released into the earth’s atmosphere by nuclear explosions. Marine plants show 4,000 times the background level of seawater, land plants record 0.4 to 2.2 disintegrations/sec/kg, land animals show 0.07 to 6.8 disintegrations/sec/kg. Pu accumulates in mammalian bone after contact or ingestion.
Ra—Radium is found in igneous rocks at 9 x 10 (-7) ppm, shale at 11 x 10 (-7) ppm, sandstone at 7 x 10 (-7) ppm, limestone at 4 x 10(-7) ppm, fresh water at 3.9 x 10 (-110) ppm, sea water at 6 x 10 (-11) ppm, soils at 8 x 10 (-7) ppm, marine plants at 9 x 10(-4) ppm, land plants at 10 (-9) ppm, marine animals at 0.7(-15) x 10 (-9) ppm, and in land animals at 7 x 10 (-9) ppm. The highest concentrations are found in mammalian bone; all isotopes of Ra are radioactive.
Rb—Rubidium is found in igneous rocks at 90 ppm, shale at 140 ppm, sandstone at 60 ppm, limestone at 3 ppm, fresh water at 0.0015ppm, sea water at 0.12 ppm, soil at 100 ppm (“fixed” by clay soils), marine plants at 7.4 ppm, land plants at 20 ppm, marine animals at 20 ppm, and in land animals at 17 ppm. The highest levels are found in liver and muscle; the lowest levels are found in bone.
Rubidium can replace the electrolyte function of potassium in many species, including bacteria, algae, fungi, and certain invertebrates (echinoderms—starfish).
Re—Rhenium is found in igneous rocks at 0.005 ppm, marine plants at 0.014 ppm, and marine animals at 0.0005 to 0.006 ppm. Land animals accumulate Re in the thyroid.
Rh—Rhodium is found in igneous rocks at 0.001 ppm.
Rn—Radon is found in igneous rocks at 4 x 10(-13) ppm, fresh water at 1.7 x 10 (-15) ppm, and sea water at 6 x 10 (-16) ppm. All isotopes of Rn are radioactive with a half-life of 54 seconds to 3.8 days. Radon is carcinogenic and highly toxic when inhaled. Radon is a common household hazard. It is odorless and colorless. Detection requires the use of kits which are generally available.
Ru—Ruthenium is found in igneous rocks at 0.001 ppm, land plants at 0.005 ppm, and in land animals at 0.002 ppm. Ru04 is highly toxic.
S—Sulfur is found in igneous rocks at 260 ppm, shale at 2,400 ppm, sandstone at 240 ppm, limestone at 1,200 ppm, fresh water at 3.7 ppm, sea water at 885 ppm, soils at 700 ppm, marine animals at 5,000 to 19,000 ppm (highest in coelenterates and mollusks), and in land animals at 5,000 ppm with the highest levels in cartilage, tendons, keratin, skin, nails, and hair. Its lowest concentrations are in the bones. In soils, up to 90 per cent of soil S is bound tightiy in humus, S04 is a major exchange anion in many soils and occurs in soils near volcanoes. In land plants S occurs at a rate of 3,400 ppm with the lowest concentrations in bryophytes and gymnosperms.
Sulfur is an important structural atom in most proteins as sulfur amino acids (cystine, cysteine, and methionine) and small organic molecules. Glutathione, a tripeptide containing cysteine, is essential to cellular reactions involving sulfur amino acids in protein. Sulfur is found in a reduced form (-SH) in cysteine and in an oxidized form (-S-S-) as the double molecule cystine. This “sulfhydrl group” is important for the specific configuration of some structural proteins and for the biological activities of some enzymes (proteins that do work).
Sulfur-containing proteins work in indirect ways to maintain life: (Hemoglobin
(Hormones (insulin, adrenal cortical hormones) ( Enzymes ( Antibodies
Sulfur also occurs in carbohydrates such as heparin, an anticoagu­lant that is concentrated in the liver and other tissues, and chondroitin sulfate (cartilage, gelatin). The vitamins thiamine (Bl) and biotin have S bound in their molecule. The toxic properties of arsenic are the result of its ability to combine with sulfhydryl groups. A deficiency of sulfur results in degenerative types of arthritis involving degeneration of cartilage, osteoarthritis, degenerative arthritis, weakened ligaments, weakened tendons, Systemic Lupus Erythematosis, sickle cell anemia, and various “collagen diseases.”
Sb—Antimony is found in igneous rocks at 0.2 ppm, shale at 1.5 ppm, sandstone at 0.05ppm, limestone at 0.2 ppm, sea water at 0.00033 ppm, soil at 2 to 10 ppm, land plants at 0.06 ppm, and in land animals at 0.006 ppm where it concentrates in mammalian heart muscle. Antimony potassium tartrate (tartar emetic) is still used today as the preferred treatment for blood flukes (schistosomiasis or bilharziasis).
Sc—Scandium is found in igneous rock at 22 ppm, shale at 13 ppm, sandstone and limestone at 1 ppm, sea water at 0.000004 ppm, soils at 7 ppm, land plants at 0.008 ppm, and in land animals at 0.00006 ppm where it concentrates in mammalian heart and bone.
Se—Selenium is found in igneous rocks at 0.05 ppm, shale at 0.6 ppm, sandstone at 0.05 ppm, limestone at 0.08 ppm, fresh water at 0.02 ppm, sea water at 0.00009 ppm, soils at 0.2 ppm, marine plants at 0.8 ppm, land plants at 0.2 ppm, and in land animals at 1.7 ppm where the highest concentrations are found in liver, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle. Keep in mind that Se is not universally distributed. Vast areas of earth are deficient or totally devoid of Se. Se is found in the humus of alkaline soils when present. Selenium is the most efficient antioxidant (anti-peroxident). It’s used at the subcellular level in the glutathione peroxidase enzyme system and metalloamino acids (selenomethionine, etc.). Selenium prevents cellular and subcellular lipids and fats from being peroxidized which literally means it prevents body fats from going rancid. “Rancid” body fats are seen externally as “age spots” or “liver spots.” The golden brown “pigment of aging” is technically known as ceroid lipofucsin and results from peroxidation that selenium could reverse.
Selenium also functions to protect cellular and organelle bi-lipid layer membranes from oxidative damage. High intakes of vegetable oils, including salad dressing and cooking oils, concurrent with a selenium deficiency is the quickest route to a heart attack and cancer. The polyun­saturated configuration of the oils when heated or treated with hydrogen (“trans fatty acids”) literally causes the rancidity (“free radical” damage) of cellular fat. The clinical diseases associated with selenium deficiency are diverse and to the uninformed shrouded in mystery. Selenium deficiency is one of the more costly mineral deficiency complexes affecting embryos, the new born, toddlers, teens, young adults, and seniors alike.
Selenium Deficiency Diseases:
Direct Results
“Age spots” & “Liver spots” Fatigue
Muscular weakness
Myalgia (muscle pain and soreness)
Muscular dystrophy (MD, White Muscle Disease, Stiff Lamb Disease)
Cardiomyopathy (Keshan Disease, “Mulberry heart” Disease)
Heart palpitations
Atrial fibrilation
Liver cirrhosis
Pancreatic atrophy
Low birth weight
High infant mortality
SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)
Cystic Fibrosis (congenital)
Indirect Results
HIV (increased rate of conversion to AIDS and transmission to fetus) ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease) MS (Multiple sclerosis) Alzheimer’s Disease
Cancer (increases cancer risk significantly)
Selenium deficiency can result in infertility in both men and women. Congenital selenium deficiency during pregnancy can result in a wide variety of problems ranging from miscarriage, low birth weight, high infant mortality, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and liver cirrhosis. Selenium deficiency in growing children can result in crib death or SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome). Sixty-five percent of SIDS deaths occur in children on canned infant formulas. Slow growth, small size (failure to reach genetic potential for size and mass), muscular dystrophy, scoliosis, cardiomyopathy (muscular dystrophy of the heart muscle or Keshan Disease), anemia, liver cirrhosis, muscular weakness, lowered immune capacity, and neuromuscular diseases are also linked to Se deficiency.
In young adults, selenium deficiency appears as anemia, chronic fatigue, muscular weakness, myalgia, fibromyalgia, muscular tenderness, pancreatitis, infertility, muscular dystrophy, scoliosis, and cardiomy­opathy. Cardiomyopathy is quite common in young athletes such as basketball and football players at the high school, college, university, and professional levels because of Se deficiency, as are multiple sclerosis and liver cirrhosis. Selenium deficiency in adults appears as reduced immune capacity, anemia, infertility, “age spots” or “liver spots”, myalgia, fibromyalgia, muscle weakness, MS, ALS, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, palpitations or irregular heartbeat, cardiomy­opathy, liver cirrhosis, and cancer.
In a review of the anti-cancer effects of selenium, Dr. Gerhard N. Schrauzer, head of the Department of Chemistry, UCSD, states:
Selenium is increasingly recognized as a versatile anticar-cinogenic agent. Its protective functions cannot be solely attributed to the action of glutathione peroxidase. Instead, selenium appears to operate by several mechanisms, depend­ing on dosage and chemical form of selenium and the nature of the carcinogenic stress. In a major protective function, selenium is proposed to prevent the malignant transformation of cells by acting as a “redox switch” in the activation-inactivation of cellular growth factors and other functional proteins through the catalysis of oxidation-reduction reactions of critical -SH groups or -S-S- bonds.
The growth-modulatory effects of selenium are dependent on the levels of intracellular glutathione peroxidase and the oxygen supply. In general, growth inhibition is achieved by the Se-mediated stimulation of cellular respiration (more oxygen, less cancer). Selenium appears to inhibit the replication of tumor viruses in animals and the activation of oncogenes by similar mechanisms. However, it may also alter carcinogen metabolism and protect DNA against carcinogen-induced damage. In additional functions of relevance to its anticar-cinogenic activity, selenium acts as an acceptor of biogenic methyl groups, and is involved in detoxification of metals and certain xenobiotics. Selenium also has immunopotentiating properties. It is required for optimal macrophage and natural killer cell functions.
The school of pharmacy from the University of Georgia released a report in August of 1994 that concludes that a human selenium deficiency is related to the clinical onset of full blown AIDS in chronically infected HIV patients. According to their report, HIV requires large amounts of selenium for replication. In selenium deficient patients, the virus competes with the patient for the limited amounts of available selenium. The HIV patient actually dies of a chronic selenium deficiency encepha­lopathy, liver cirrhosis, or cardiomyopathy. Long-term HIV patients (20 years or more) that never developed full blown clinical AIDS had supplemented with large amounts of selenium.
Si—Silica is found in igneous rocks at 281,500 ppm, shale at 73,000 ppm, sandstone at 368,000 ppm, limestone at 24,000 ppm, fresh water at 6.5 ppm, sea water at 3 ppm, soils at 330,000 ppm (found as Si02, the most abundant form of Si in nature, in silicates and clays), marine plants at 1,500 to 20,000 ppm, marine animals at 70,000 ppm, and in land animals at 120 to 6,000 ppm where it is mainly concentrated in hair, lungs, and bone. Plants accumulating the most Si are diatoms, horsetail, ferns, Cyoeraceae, Graineae, and Juncaceae, and the flowers of Pappo-phorum silicosum. Silicon supplementation increases the collagen in growing bone by 100 percent. Tissue levels of Si decrease with aging in unsupplemented humans and laboratory species. Dry brittle finger and toenails, poor skin quality, poor calcium utilization, and arterial disease characterize silica deficiency. High fiber diets contain high levels of Si, which leads many investigators to believe that Si helps to lower cholesterol. The recommended intake of Si ranges from 200 to 500 mg/day.
Sm—Samarium is a “light” rare earth found in igneous rocks at 6 ppm, shale at 5.6 ppm, sandstone at 2.7 ppm, limestone at 0.8 ppm, land plants at 0.0055 ppm (accumulates up to 23 ppm), marine animals at 0.04 to 0.08 ppm, land animals at 0.01 ppm in heart muscle and 0.0009 ppm in mammalian bone and liver. Samarium enhances normal cell proliferation and doubles the life span of laboratory species.
Sn—Tin is found in igneous rocks at 2 ppm, shale at 6 ppm, sandstone and limestone at 0.5 ppm, fresh water at 0.00004 ppm, sea water at 0.003 ppm, soils at 2 to 200 ppm (strongly absorbed by by humus), marine plants at 1 ppm, land plants at 0.3 ppm (highest in bryophytes and lichens), marine animals at 0.2 to 20 ppm, and land animals at 0.15 ppm with the highest levels found in the lungs and intestines. Originally the presence of tin in tissue was attributed to environmental contamination; however, careful and detailed studies by Schwarz demonstrated that tin produced acceleration in growth in rats and further met the standards for an essential trace element. As a member of the fourth main group of chemical elements, tin has many chemical and physical properties similar to those of carbon, silica, germanium, and lead.
Rats fed tin at 17.0 ng/gm show poor growth, reduced feeding efficiency, hearing loss, and bilateral (male pattern) hair loss, while rats fed 1.99 |ng/gm were physiologically and anatomically normal. Schwarz demonstrated tin to be an essential element in 1970. Tin has been shown to exert a strong induction effect on the enzyme heme oxygenase, enhancing heme breakdown in the kidney. There is also evidence for tin having cancer prevention properties. A federal study released in November of 1991 showed that men in recent generations have poorer hearing at any given age than men in earlier generations. Men over age 30 lose their hearing more than twice as fast as women of the same age. So much for talk about having a “tin ear”!
Sr—Strontium is found in igneous rocks at 375 ppm, shale at 300 ppm, sandstone at 20 ppm, limestone at 610 ppm, fresh water at 0.08 ppm, sea water at 8.1 ppm, soils at 300 ppm, marine plants at 260 to 1,400 ppm, land plants at 26 ppm, marine animals at 20 to 500 ppm, and in land animals at 14 ppm where it’s most highly concentrated in mammalian bone. Strontium can replace calcium in many organisms, including man. There is considerable evidence for essentiality in mammals including man. Deficiencies of strontium are associated with certain types of Ca and boron resistant osteoporosis and arthritis. Strontium 90, the man-made product of fission atomic explosions and the greatest biohazard fear during the cold war, does not occur in nature.
Ta—Tantalum is found in igneous rocks at 2 ppm, shale at 0.8 ppm, sandstone and limestone at 0.05 ppm, sea water at 0.0000025 ppm, and in marine animals accumulates up to 410 ppm.
Tb—Terbium is found in igneous rock at 0.9 ppm, shale at 0.58 ppm, sandstone at 0.41 ppm, limestone at 0.071 ppm, land plants at 0.0015 ppm, marine animals at 0.006 to 0.01 ppm, and land animals at 0.0004 ppm where it accumulates in the bone.
Tc—TechnetiumAll isotopes of technetium are radioactive and not known to occur in nature. Technetium is poorly absorbed by mammals.
Te—Tellurium is found in igneous rocks at 0.001 ppm, land plants at 2 to 25 ppm, and in land animals at 0.02 ppm.
Th—Thorium is found in igneous rocks at 9.6 ppm, shale at 12 ppm, sandstone and limestone at 1-7 ppm, soils at 5 ppm, marine animals at 0.003 to 0.03 ppm and land animals at 0.003 to 0.1 ppm.
Ti—Titanium is found in igneous rocks at 5,700 ppm, shale at 4,600 ppm, sandstone at 1,500 ppm, sea water at 0.001 ppm, soils at 5,000 ppm, marine plants at 12 to 80 ppm (accumulates in plankton), land plants at 1 ppm, marine animals at 0.2 to 20 ppm, and land animals at 0.2 ppm.
Tm—Thulium is a “heavy” rare earth and is found in igneous rocks at 0.48 ppm, shales at 0.28 ppm, sandstone at 0.3 ppm, limestone at 0.065 ppm, land plants at 0.0015 ppm, and land animals at 0.00004 ppm. Thulium supplementation enhances the growth of normal cells and has doubled the life span of laboratory species.
U—Uranium is found in igneous rocks at 2.7 ppm, shale at 3.7 ppm, sandstone at 0.95 ppm, limestone at 2.2 ppm, fresh water at 0.001 ppm, sea water at 0.003 ppm, soil at ppm (absorbed by humus, especially in alkaline soils), land plants at 0.038 ppm (Astragalus spp. is an accumulator plant), marine animals at 0.004 to 3.2 ppm, and animals at 0.013 ppm. All-natural isotopes are alpha emitters and may also decay by fission. Uranium is accumulated by mammalian kidney and bone after ingestion.
V—Vanadium is found in igneous rocks at 1135 ppm, shale at 130 ppm, sandstone at 20 ppm, limestone at 20 ppm, fresh water at 0.001 ppm, sea water at 0.002 ppm, soils at 100 ppm (V is absorbed by humus, especially in alkaline soils), marine plants at 2 ppm, land plants at 1.6 ppm (accumulated by the fungus Armanita muscaria), marine animals at 0.14 to 2.0 ppm, and in land animals at 0.15 ppm. Metallic vanadium (vanadyl sulfate) is absorbed from the intestinal tract very poorly at only 0.1 to 1.0 percent, vanadium chelates are absorbed at 40 percent, and plant derived colloidal forms at up to 98 percent.
Vanadium was proven to be essential in 1971. Vanadium stimulates blood sugar (glucose) oxidation and transport in fat cells and glycogen (animal starch) synthesis in liver and muscle and inhibits liver gluconeogenesis (production of glucose from fat) and absorption of glucose from the gut. Vanadium enhances the stimulating effect of insulin on DNA synthesis. Despite low serum insulin, the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats fed vanadium was the same as normal controls. Vanadium appears to function like insulin by altering cell membrane function for ion transport. Therefore, vanadium has a very beneficial effect for humans with glucose and carbohydrate intolerance (i.e. hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, narcolepsy, prediabetes, depression, manic depression, bi-polar disease, “chemical imbalance,” ADD, ADHD, violent behavior, etc.) by making the cell membrane insulin receptors more sensitive to insulin.
Several cultures including African Americans, Native American Indians, Hispanics, and Hawaiians have an increased rate of diabetes when they eat their ethnic foods and consume canned, processed foods that are fried and high in sugar. Vanadium supplementation can have a major positive economic impact by reducing or even eliminating most cases of adult onset diabetes. Diabetes alone costs American taxpayers a minimum of $105 billion each year.
Vanadium inhibits cholesterol synthesis in animals and humans; this is followed by decreased plasma levels of cholesterol and reduced aortic cholesterol. Vanadium initiates an increase in the contractile force of heart muscle known as the “inotropic effect.” Vanadium has known anticarcinogenic properties. Feeding 25 |ng of vanadium per gram of diet blocked induction of mouse mammary tumor growth. The vanadium supplement reduced tumor incidence, average tumor count per animal, and prolonged median cancer-free time without inhibiting overall growth or health of the animals.
Clinical Diseases Associated with Vanadium Deficiency:
Slow growth
Increased infant mortality Infertility
Elevated cholesterol
Elevated triglycerides
Manic depression, Bi-polar disease Tourette’s syndrome Cardiovascular disease Obesity
W—Tungsten is found in igneous rocks at 1.5 ppm, shale at 1.8 ppm, sandstone at 1.6 ppm, limestone at 0.6 ppm, seawater at 0.0001 ppm, soils at 1 ppm, marine plants at 0.0035 ppm, marine animals at 0.0005 to 0.05 ppm, and in land animals at 0.005 ppm. Tungsten accumulates in heart muscle and teeth at 0.00025 ppm.
Xe—Xenon is found in igneous rocks at 0.00003 ppm and in seawater at 0.000052 ppm. Xenon binds to mammalian hemoglobin and myoglobin producing an anesthetic effect.
Y—Yttrium is a “heavy” rare earth found in igneous rocks at 33 ppm, shale at 18 ppm, sandstone at 9.1 ppm, limestone at 4.3 ppm, sea water at 0.0003 ppm, soils at 50 ppm, land plants at 0.6 ppm (accumu­lates in ferns), marine mammals at 0.01 to 0.2 ppm, and in land animals at 0.04 ppm where it is found in mammalian bone, teeth, and liver. Yttrium enhances normal cell growth and doubles the life span of laboratory species. Exposure of pregnant mice to yttrium leads to rapid placental transfer. Fourteen percent of ingested yttrium can be detected in the newborn mice.
Yb—Ytterbium is a rare earth found in igneous rocks at 3 ppm, shale at 1.8 ppm, sandstone at 1.3 ppm, limestone at 0.43 ppm, land plants at 0.0015 ppm, marine animals at 0.02 ppm, and in land animals at 0.00012 ppm where it accumulates at up to .3 ppm in bone, teeth, and liver. Exposure of pregnant mice leads to rapid placental transfer. Fourteen percent of ingested ytterbium can be detected in newborn mice.
Zn—Zinc is found in igneous rocks at 70 ppm, shale at 95 ppm, sandstone at 116 ppm, limestone at 20 ppm, fresh water at 0.01 ppm, seawater at 0.01 ppm, soils at 50 ppm, marine plants at 6 to 1,500 ppm, land plants at 100 ppm, marine animals at 6 to 1,500 ppm, and in land animals at 160 ppm. Zinc accumulates in mammalian kidney, prostate, and eye. Zinc was known to be an essential growth factor for bread mold 100 years ago, essential for rats 50 years ago, and essential for humans 20 years ago. Zinc deficiency produces a wide range of diseases including congenital birth defects and degenerative diseases of all age groups.
Congenital Birth Defects Associated with Zinc Deficiency:
Down’s Syndrome
Cleft lip
Cleft palate
Brain defects (dorsal herniation, hydroenchalocoel) ( Micro or anopthalmia (small or absent eyes)
Agnathia (small lower jaw) ( Spina bifida ( Clubbed limbs
Syndactyly (webbed toes and fingers) ( Polydactyly (extra limbs and digits) ( Atresia (failure to develope limbs, digits,organs, anal opening,etc.)
Hernias (hiatal, diaphragmatic, umbilical, inguinal, etc.) ( Heart defects ( Lung defects
Urogenital defects (horseshoe kidney, small kidney, intersex malformations of the male and female genitalia)
There are 1.4 to 2.3 grams of Zn in the adult human. The liver, pancreas, kidney, bone, and skeletal muscles have the greatest reserves of Zn. Lesser amounts are found in the eye, prostate gland, semen, skin, hair, fingernails, and toenails. There are no less than 70 metalloenzymes that require Zn as a functional cofactor. These include carbonic anhydrase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, and carboxypep-tidase. Zinc helps to bind enzymes to substrates by maintaining spatial and configurational relationships. Some enzymes bind Zn so tightly that even during severe Zn depletion they can still function.
Zinc participates in the metabolism of nucleic acids and the synthesis of proteins. Zinc is also an integral part of the RNA molecule itself where Zinc provides the “metallic fingers” and participates in cell division and synthesis of DNA. The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is a zinc-dependent enzyme, as is thymidine kinase.
Excesses of dietary copper and iron and high phytate diets (vegans) will reduce availability of dietary zinc. Heavy losses of zinc occur in sweat, therefore unsupplemented athletes are particularly at risk for zinc deficiency with the following symptoms such as anorexia nervosa, muscle weakness, pica and cribbing, etc.
Symptoms and Diseases of Zinc Deficiency:
( Pica/Cribbing (geophagia, wool eating, hair eating, etc.)
( Loss of sense of smell
( Loss of sense of taste
( Infertility
( Failure of wounds and ulcers to heal
( Immune status failure
( Poor growth (short stature)
( High infant mortality
( Hypogonadism (small poorly functioning ovaries and testes)
( Perpetual prepubic state
( Anemia
< Alopecia (hair loss)
( Acrodermatitis enteropathica (parakeratosis)
( “Frizzy” hair
( Diarrhea
( Depression
< Paranoia
( Oral and perioral dermatitis
< Weight loss (anorexia nervosa)
( Benign prostatic hypertrophy (noncancerous prostatic enlargement)
( Severe body odor (“smelly tennis shoe” syndrome)
( Anorexia and Bulimia
Zr—Zirconium is found in igneous rocks at 165 ppm, shale at 160 ppm, sandstone at 220 ppm, limestone at 19 ppm, fresh water at 0.0026 ppm, seawater at 0.000022 ppm, soils at 300 ppm, marine plants at 20 ppm, land plants at 0.64 ppm, marine animals at 0.1 to 1.0 ppm, and land animals at 0.3 ppm.